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History of Sindhi Civilization

Ancient History

The South Asian region is separated from the rest of Asia by a wall of ranges - the Hindu Kush, the Sulaiman, the Karakoram and the Himalayas. Below these are the seemingly endless plains drained by the Indus, the Ganges and the Brahmaputra rivers.
In the geological youth of the world, the entire subcontinent was part of the ocean bed. Its ring of mountains was a wall of cliff-shored islands holding back the waves from the Asian heartland as they now hold back the monsoon clouds. The ocean receded; the bed became fertile plain. Rivers began to find their way to the now distant ocean. The longest of three great sub continental rivers is the Indus, now in Pakistan, then Sind. The river has given its name to a country and a religion- ironically, not the country through which it flows or the religion of the people who live by its waters. It is fed by many streams from the mountains of Tibet, the Soviet Union, and Afghanistan. Five other major rivers flows into the Indus: the Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Sutlej, and Beas.
This essay is about the people who live along these waters and the people who live in the desserts deprived of these waters. They speak many languages- Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashto, Baluchi, Brahui, Gujrati, to name some - reflecting the diversity of their historical and cultural experience. The people of the Indus live in four provinces of Pakistan. They are the products of unnumbered historical permutations and combinations, the fusion and clashes of fifty-five centuries of civilisation.
In the 1920s an expedition of the Indian Archaeological Survey under Sir John Marshall excavated an interesting mound of earth in the Sind region of then British India. The locals called this particular earthy protuberance Mohan-jo-daro - "the place of the dead." Sir John and his -party discovered one of the world's most ancient cities beneath it. Up to that time the ancient settled areas along the Tigris-Euphrates and the Nile River systems had seemed to merit the title of "cradle of civilisation" - now the Indus was making its claim and new theories had to be devised. Other sites were investigated, and the cities of the Indus Valley were unearthed - Harappa, Chanhu-daro, Lothal, KotDiji-highly developed cities that told of a civilisation which had began around 3000 BC, reached apex by 2000, and completely perished by 1000 B.C.
The remains excavated in Mohan-jo-Daro depict the state of affairs from civilisation point of view at that period. These Aryans in Sindh virtually the Indus Valley are mentioned in history of having played role in the battle of Hastinapur when King Jaidrath took his army to support the Kurus. The Sindhis rule the Sindh till they were defeated and conquered by the Arabs in the seventh century. And from that time onwards they played the role of refugees.

Recent Past

With the Partition in 1947 they have had to leave their home and have spread themselves out in every part of the world. And they still continue to be refugees. Though they are refugees driven away from their home they are again with their own Aryans who had spread out in parts of the country. The brother Aryans kept the banner of Sindh alive by including their identity in the National Song and recognizing as a positive community whose future lies in recovering the land of their birth and supporting the country as they did in the battle of Hastinapur. For at that time we learnt that we were part of the central government ruled by Duryodhana.
When due to the partition of India, the Sindhis were dispossessed of their lands and properties, they did not give into despair. Leaving their properties and possessions in Sindh, they migrated to India, bringing with themselves their enterprising spirit, their faith in God and their many qualities of head and heart. In Sindh, there was never a Sindhu beggar. When they came to India, they resolved that they would starve rather than beg. Little boys attended school during the day and in the afternoon, kept themselves busy hawking on the streets or in railway trains.
Of the great German mathematician, Dr. Jaccobi, it is said that one day he was asked why he had sacrificed so much and devoted all his time and energies to the development of the arithmetic theory, he replied: - "For the honour of the human spirit!"
Of Maharaj Prakash Bhardwaj, it may rightly be said that he has strained every nerve, labored long and untiringly - all for the honor of Sindhi community. He has already given two monumental volumes in the "Sindhi through the Ages" series. And now he presents with the magnificent publication, 'Sindhis' International Yearbook (1841-1990).

Caste System in Sindhis

Vintage group photo of Indian Sindhi people

The region received its name, Sindh, from the River Sindhu (Indus). The people living in the region are referred to as Sindhi. The terms Hindi and Hindu are derived from the word Sindh and Sindhu, as the ancient Persians pronounced "s" as "h" (e.g., sarasvati as hrauvati). In the same way, Persians called the people of this region as Hindhi people, their language as Hindhi language and the region as Hindh, the name which is used for this region since ancient times, and later for the whole northern part of the Indian sub-continent today. India is also known as hindustan The two main and highest ranked tribes of Sindh are the Soomro — descendants of the Soomro Dynasty, who ruled Sindh during 970-1351 A.D. — and the Samma — descendants of the Samma Dynasty, who ruled Sindh during 1351-1521 A.D. These tribes belong to the same blood line. Among other Sindhi Rajputs are the Bhachos, Bhuttos, Bhattis, Bhanbhro, Mahendros, Buriros, Lakha, Sahetas, Lohanas, Mohano, Dahars, Indhar, Chachar, Dhareja, Rathores, Dakhan, Langah, etc. The Sindhi-Sipahi of Rajasthan and the Sandhai Muslims of Gujarat are communities of Sindhi Rajputs settled in India. Closely related to the Sindhi Rajputs are the Jats of Sindh, who are found mainly in the Indusdelta region. However, tribes are of little importance in Sindh as compared to in Punjab and Balochistan. Identity is mostly based on a common ethnicity.
Muslim Arabs have possibly contributed the most to the development of the modern Sindhi language and literature and to the advancement of its intellectual and cultural activities.
Another group of people who are largely overlooked in any discussions about groups and culture of Sindh are the Haris, whose name is derived from the term "Harijan." The majority of Haris are nominally Muslims while practicing what is generally known as folk Hindu beliefs all over rural Pakistan like head tonsuring and sacred thread ceremonies.
Nearly 1.4 million Muslims (Muhajirs) migrated from India and settled in Sindh after the creation of Pakistan, populating mostly urban centers of the province. They spoke Urdu and Gujarati as well as other languages that reflect their regions of origin.

Sindhi Muslims

Abida Parveen is a Pakistani singer of Sindhi descent and one of the foremost exponents of Sufi music.

With Sindh’s stable prosperity and its strategic geographical possession, it is not surprising that it was subject to successive conquests by foreign empires. In 712 A.D., Sindh was incorporated into the Caliphate, the Islamic Empire, and became the ‘Arabian gateway’ into India (later to become known as Bab-ul-Islam, the gate of Islam).
Muslim Sindhis tend to follow the Sunni Hanaffiqh with a substantial minority of ShiaIthna ashariyah. The Sufism has made a deep impact on Sindhi Muslims and Sufi shrines dot the landscape of Sindh.

Grand mausoleum of Shah Abdul LatifBhittai built by MianGhulam Shah Kalhoro on 1762.

Interior of the Shah Jahan Mosque, Thatta, built during the rule of the Mughal Empire.

Sindhi Hindus

Sindh is home to some Hindus. The ratio of Hindus was higher before the independence of Pakistan in 1947. Many Hindus are migrating to India and other parts of the world; they are regarded as a minority in decline.
Before 1947 however, other than a few Gujarati speaking Parsees (Zorastrians) living in Karachi, virtually all the inhabitants were Sindhis, whether Muslim or Hindu at the time of Pakistan's independence, 75% of the population were Muslims and almost all the remaining 25% were Hindus.
Hindus in Sindh were concentrated in the cities before the independence of Pakistan in 1947, during which many migrated to India according to Ahmad Hassan Dani. In reality, Hindus were spread over Sindh province. Thari (a dialect of Sindhi) is spoken in Sindh in Pakistan and Rajasthan in India. The Cities and towns of Sindh were dominated by the Hindus. In 1941, for example, Hindus were 64% of the total urban population.
Hindu Sindhis are divided into 3 major sects that have certain different cultural nuances: the Amil, Shikarpuri and Bhaiband. Hindu Sindhis are a cosmopolitan community and transcend all caste, racial and national barriers. Historically, the Amils, or government servants, filled many appointments in the civil service. This conferred a status upon them which set them above others and was marked by a difference in attire. In the past they worked for Muslim rulers who often gave gifts of land in return - thus they came to be small landowners known as Zamindars or Jageerdars. Under British rule these posts became administrative ones where they held positions as collectors and commissioners, highly respected by the British as well as the common man of Sindh.
The other large group of Sindhis were involved in trade and commerce of various types. Sindhuvarkis, or Bhaibands, established trading posts throughout the world and dealt in fabrics. Many are extremely rich and their women-folk are renowned for their richly dressed, bejewelled appearances . Shikarpuris were bankers who carried on business throughout the Middle East and the Vanya were shopkeepers of all types.
Sindhis themselves had no untouchable caste which in other Indian societies did the menial work. As post partition of Sindhis, we had often heard of Sindhi names/labels like Amils, Bhaibands, Sindhiwarkis, Hyderabadis and so on, but could not make sense of these so called ‘castes’ of the community. Sindhishaan requested veteran researcher Shri Sahib Bijani to simplify and explain the various ‘types’ to the Sindh community. Here is a summary of the extensive research conducted by ShriBijani.
Sindhis don’t follow any caste system, but there are certain loosely defined ‘castes’ or ‘zaats’ that are distinct from each other as they have come to be associated with distinct cultural and behavioral characteristics. These qualities or traits arose either from their professional differences or from the cities and places of living. For example Hyderabadisare known because they lived in Hyderabad which was comparatively an advanced and prosperous city. Similarly Shikarpuris are people from Shikarpur. This way there are many classifications in the Sindhi community. We have tried to enumerate some of the better known types on this webpage.
AMILS –The word Amil comes from amal which means to practice. These are Hindu Kshatriyas who worked as accountants in the governments of Mirs and Kalhodas in Sindh. Nowadays their descendants are also known as Amils even though they may not be in service. Amils residing in Hyderabad would be known as HyderabadiAmils. Some of the Amils also resided in Khairpur, Larkana and Sevanh. Hyderabadis are supposed to be of a higher Zaat, well educated and fair skinned because the city of Hyderabad in those days was an education and cultural hub.
BHAIBANDS – In Sindh, the business class of Sindhis was known as Bhaibands. These people were into trading and business activities in the kingdom of the Mirs. It would be possible to find one Amil brother and one Bhaiband brother in the same household. In those days Amils would marry only Amils and Bhaibands would marry only Bhaibands. Nowadays even though they may be in service, yet they are known as Bhaibands if their ancestors belonged to this caste.
SINDHWARKIS – Sindhwarkis are those Bhaibands of Sindh who traded in the materials made in Sindh and then exported it. In 1843, the British conquered Sindh and at that time, the HyderabadiBhaibands supplied the materials for daily needs to the British soldiers. Because of their contact with the British army they supplied all types of material to them, even from the villages of Sindh. Then these Bhaibands went to Bombay, from there to Columbia and Rangoon. In 1869 the Suez Canal was opened and many Sindhwarkis went to Europe and Singapore and then spread all over the world, and began trading from many other ports and cities. This is the now known category of Sindhi NRIs
CHHAPRUS – The word Chhapru comes from the word Chhapparmeaning mountain. These people usually lived in the mountain regions in Sindh and later came down to stay in Karachi. Chhaprus have followed their own distinct rituals and customs. Some of the Chhaprus are also known as Saprus.
BHATIAS – Bhatias are descendants of Shri Krishna. There are thousands of Sindhi Bhatias all over the world today. They usually marry among themselves and are strict vegetarians. Many don’t even eat onions and garlic. Some of their sub-castes are Gajria, Kajria, Parmal etc.
MASANDS – Masands were appointed to spread Sikhism by the fourth Guru, Guru Ramdas. They would spread the message of Gurbani in small towns and villages and collect funds. Then on Diwali day they would go and meet their Guru and hand over the collection. They would then be honored by their Guru. Even today there are around 300 Masands in India; some of them are brilliant educationists and social workers.
THAKURS – These are the descendants of Lord Jhulelal. They are the official Brahmins of the Sindhi community. They head many Sindhi Tikanas and Durbars. BHAGNARIS – There were two small villages in Baluchistan known as Bhag and Nari which explains the name of this Bhagnari community. They were the community of dry fruits and spice merchants of those days. Some Bhagnaris were also wine merchants. They strictly married in their own community. Some of the famous Bhagnaris are Popleys, NanomalIssardas and so on.
LOHANAS – Lohanas are the desendants of Luv, the son of BhagwanRamchandra. They are the Kshatriyas who lived in an iron fort built by them in Punjab known as Loh-Ghar, which later came to be known as Lahore. They came to Sindh from Lahore from where many Lohanas migrated to Kutch. They are usually engaged in trading and other business.
The Sindhi diaspora emigrated from India and Sindh is significant. Emigration from the Sindh began before and after the 19th century, with many Sindhis settling in Europe, United States and Canada with a large Sindhi population in Middle Eastern states such as UAE, KSA. A wave of emigration began in 1947 to India after the partition.


The Sindhis are peaceful, hardworking, hospitable, open-minded community. They have build up the image of Indians abroad as a prosperous and dependable people. They are free from inhibitions of caste and creed. In Sindhi Temples you will find the images of Sri Rama and Sri Krishna placed, side by side, with those of Shiva and Durga and Guru Nanak. The Sindhis are cosmopolitan in their outlook. Someone said that today in India it is difficult to meet an Indian: every one belongs to one province or the other. The Sindhis are the only Indians in India. The Sindhis are an enterprising and industrious people - full of the spirit of faith and courage. They know the subtle psychology of influencing the customer. 'Sindhi merchants' rightly said an Englishman, know how to "hypnotise the customers".

Sindhis perform various types of arts and have exotic sense of interiors and clothing which can draw attention of populace at large. Though till recent past, Sindhis were more known for their business intelligence, but contemporarily they can be equally seen into IAS, IIM, IIT, CA, CS, MBA, PH.D and similar elite diverse educational programmes. As majorly seen, even after acquiring higher education, the major inclination of youth is towards leadership and entrepreneurship.

Sindhi language

Official status of the Sindhi language

Although Sindhi was not a regional language in a well-defined area, there were persistent demands from the Sindhi-speaking people for the inclusion of Sindhi language in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution. The Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities also recommended the inclusion. On 4 November 1966, it was announced that the Government had decided to include the Sindhi language in the Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution. At the 2001 census, there were 2,571,526 Sindhi speakers in India.

Sindhi people

The Sindhi people live mainly in the north-western part of India. Many Sindhis inhabit the states of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh as well as the Indian capital of New Delhi. In India, Sindhi is the local language in the Kutchh region of Gujarat. Most Sindhis of India follow the Hindu religion (90%), although Sindhi Sikhs are a prominent minority (5-10%). There are many Sindhis living in various cities in India, including Ulhasnagar, Kalyan, Mumbai, Pune, Gandhidham, Surat, Adipur, Gandhinagar, Ahmedabad, Bhavnagar, Bhopal (Bairagarh), Ajmer, Jaisalmer, Kota, Delhi, Chandigarh, Jaipur, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Chennai, Raipur, Indore, Gondia, Nagpur, Jabalpur, Katni, Satna, Sagar, Rewa, Bilaspur,Dhule etc
Sindhi /ˈsɪndi/ (سنڌي, सिन्धी, ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the historical Sindh region, spoken by the Sindhi people. It is the official language of the Pakistani province of Sindh. In India, Sindhi is one of the scheduled languagesofficially recognized by the federal government. It has influences from Balochi and Kachchi spoken in the adjacent province of Balochistan and Kachchh respectively.
Most Sindhi speakers are concentrated in Pakistan in the Sindh province, and in India in the Kutch region of the state of Gujarat and in Ulhasnagar region of the state of Maharashtra. The remaining speakers in India are composed of the Hindu Sindhis who migrated from Sindh, which became a part of Pakistan and settled in India after the independence ofPakistan in 1947 and the Sindhi diaspora worldwide. Sindhi language is spoken in Sindh, Pakistan and Kutch, India as well as immigrant communities in India, Hong Kong, Oman, Philippines, Indonesia, Singapore, UAE, UK, United States,Afghanistan, and Sri Lanka.

Contemporary status

The Sindhi language and other native languages of Pakistan are struggling to be officially given the status of national language in Pakistan. Before the inception of Pakistan, Sindhi was the national language of Sindh. There are many Sindhi language television channels broadcasting in Pakistan such as KTN, Sindh TV, Awaz Television Network. Besides this, Indian television Doordarshan have been asked by the Indian court to start a news channel for Hindu Sindhis of India.
Sindhi Computing Sindhi Computing is the term used for the Software developed for the Sindhi language, these software are intended for the users to read, write and learn Sindhi language online or offline.

Sindhi language Software

Sindhi language software such as Sindhi language keyboards have been developed for the Windows OS, Android smartphones. Various other online websites provide Sindhi keyboard such as (, M.B Sindhi keyboard by Majid Bhurgri. A software have been developed by the Sindhi Language Authority which will end the barrier between the Arabic-Sindhi script or Perso-Sindhi script and Devanagari Sindhi script; such software have also been developed by the Punjabi researchers at Punjabi University and Manchester University for the Sindhi.

Sindhi literature and Sindhi poetry

When Sindh was occupied by British army and was annexed with Bombay, governor of the province Sir George Clerk ordered to make Sindhi the official language in the province in 1848. Sir Bartle Frere, the then commissioner of Sindh, issued orders on August 29, 1857 advising civil servants in Sindh to qualify examination in Sindhi. He also ordered Sindhi to be used in all official communication. Seven-grade education system commonly known as Sindhi-Final was introduced in Sindh. Sindhi Final was made a prerequisite for employment in revenue, police and education departments.


Like other languages of this family, Sindhi has passed through Old Indo-Aryan (Sanskrit) and Middle Indo-Aryan (Pali, secondary Prakrits, and Apabhramsha) stages of growth, and it entered the New Indo-Aryan stage around the 10th century ce.
In the year 1868, the Bombay Presidency assigned Narayan JagannathVaidya to replace the Abjad used in Sindhi, with the Khudabadi script. The script was decreed a standard script by the Bombay Presidency thus inciting anarchy in the Muslim majority region. A powerful unrest followed, after which Twelve Martial Laws were imposed by the British authorities. According to Islamic Sindhi tradition, the first translation of the Quran into Sindhi was completed in the year 883 CE / 270 AH in Mansura, Sindh. The first extensive Sindhi translation was done by AkhundAzaz Allah Muttalawi (1747–1824 CE / 1160–1240 AH) and first published in Gujrat in 1870. The first to appear in print was by Muhammad Siddiq (Lahore 1867).


Sindhi has a relatively large inventory of both consonants and vowels compared to other languages. Sindhi has 46 consonant phonemesand 16 vowels. The consonant to vowel ratio is around average for world's languages at 2.8. All plosives, affricates, nasals, theretroflex flap and the lateral approximant /l/ have aspirated or breathy voiced counterparts. The language also features four implosives.


The retroflex consonants are apical postalveolar, as they are throughout northern India, and so could be transcribed /t̠, t̠ʰ, d̠, d̠ʱ n̠ n̠ʱ s̠ ɾ̠ ɾ̠ʱ/. The dental implosive is sometimes realized as retroflex [ɗ̠]~[ᶑ] The affricates /t̠ɕ, t̠ɕʰ, d̠ʑ, d̠ʑʱ/ are laminal post-alveolars with a relatively short release. It is not clear if /ɲ/ is similar, or truly palatal. /ʋ/ is realized as labiovelar [w] or labiodental [ʋ] in free variation occurs, but is not common, except before a stop.


The vowels are modal length /i e æ ɑ ɔ o u/ and short /ɪ̆ ʊ̆ ɐ̆/. (Note /æ ɑ ɐ̆/ are imprecisely transcribed as /ɛ a ə/ in the chart.) Consonants following short vowels are lengthened: [pɐ̆tˑo] 'leaf' vs. [pɑto] 'worn'.


Ernest Trumpp authored the first Sindhi grammar entitled Sindhi Alphabet and Grammar.


Sindhi has borrowed from English and Hindustani. Today, Sindhi in Pakistan is heavily influenced by Urdu, with more borrowed Perso-Arabic elements, while Sindhi in India is influenced by Hindi, with more borrowed tatsam Sanskrit elements.

Example extract

The following extract is from the Sindhi Wikipedia about the Sindhi language and is written in the 52-letter Sindhi-Arabic script, Devanagari and transliterated to Latin.
Sindhi-Arabic script: سنڌي ٻولي انڊو يورپي خاندان سان تعلق رکندڙ آريائي ٻولي آھي، جنھن تي ڪجھه دراوڙي اھڃاڻ پڻ موجود آهن. هن وقت سنڌي ٻولي سنڌ جي مک ٻولي ۽ دفتري زبان آھي.
Devanagari script: सिन्धी ॿोली इण्डो यूरपी ख़ान्दान सां ताल्लुक़ु रखन्दड़ आर्याई ॿोली आहे, जिंहन ते कुझ द्राविड़ी उहुञाण पण मौजूद आहिनि। हिन वक़्तु सिन्धी ॿोली सिन्ध जी मुख बोली ऐं दफ़्तरी ज़बान आहे।


Sindhi language has many dialects among those include Utradi, Vicholi, Lari, Lasi, KathiawariKatchi, Multani, Saraiki, Bhagnari.

Writing system

Written Sindhi is mentioned in the 8th century, when references to a Sindhi version of the Mahabharata appear. However, the earliest attested records in Sindhi are from the 15th century.
Before the standardisation of Sindhi orthography, numerous forms of the Devanagari and Lunda (Laṇḍā) scripts were used for trading. For literary and religious purposes, anArabic-Persian alphabet known as Ab-ul-Hassan Sindhi and Gurmukhi (a subset of Laṇḍā) were used. Another two scripts, Khudabadi and Shikarpuri, were reforms of the Landa script. During British rule in the late 19th century, a Persian alphabet was decreed standard over Devanagari. Medieval Sindhi devotional literature (1500–1843) comprises Sufi poetry and Advaita Vedanta poetry. Sindhi literature flourished during the modern period (since 1843), although the language and literary style of contemporary Sindhi writings in Pakistan and India were noticeably diverging by the late 20th century; authors from the former country were borrowing extensively from Persian and Arabic vocabulary, while those from the latter were highly influenced by Hindi.


Laṇḍā- based scripts, such as Gurmukhi, Khojki and the Khudabadi script were used historically to write Sindhi.


The Khudabadi alphabet was invented in 1550 CE, and was used alongside the Arabic script by the Hindu community until the colonial era, where the sole usage of the Arabic script for official purposes was legislated.
The script continued to be used in a smaller scale by the trader community until the independence of Pakistan in 1947.


Khojiki was employed primarily to record Muslim Shia Ismaili religious literature, as well as literature for a few secret Shia Muslim sects.


The Gurmukhi script was also used to write Sindhi, mainly in the North of Sindh, and also by Hindu women.

Arabic script

Historically, different versions of the Arabic script were used by the Hindu and Muslim communities. During British rule in India, a variant of the Persian alphabet was adopted for Sindhi in the 19th century. The script is used in Pakistan today. It has a total of 64 letters, augmenting the Persian with digraphs and eighteen new letters (ڄ ٺ ٽ ٿ ڀ ٻ ڙ ڍ ڊ ڏ ڌ ڇ ڃ ڦ ڻ ڱ ڳ ڪ) for sounds particular to Sindhi and other Indo-Aryan languages. Some letters that are distinguished in Arabic or Persian are homophones in Sindhi.
Sindhi alphabet with equivalent characters in English, Urdu and Hindi.

Devanagari script

In India, the Devanagari script is also used to write Sindhi. A modern version was introduced by the government of India in 1948; however, it did not gain full acceptance, so both the Sindhi-Arabic and Devanagari scripts are used. In India a person may write a Sindhi language paper for a Civil Services Examination in either script . Diacritical bars below the letter are used to mark implosive consonants, anddots called nukta are used to form other additional consonants.

Gujarati script

The Gujarati script is used to write the Kutchi dialect in India.

Roman Sindhi Script

The Sindhi-Roman script or Roman-Sindhi script is the contemporary Sindhi script usually used by the Sindhis during texting messages on their mobile phones. A Sindhi writer Haleem Brohi was the staunch advoacate of the Roman-Sindhi script and he also wrote book for this script.

Sindhi Literature

Sindhi literature (Sindhi: سنڌي ادب‎) writers have contributed extensively in various forms of literature both in poetry and prose. Sindhi language has remained cradle of civilization and confluence of various cultures from the initial times.

Sufi literature and poetry

The earliest reference to Sindhi literature is contained in the writings of Arab historians. It is established that Sindhi was the first and the earliest language of East in which the Quran was translated in the eighth or ninth century AD There is evidence of Sindhi poets reciting their verses before the Muslim Caliphs in Baghdad. It is also recorded that treatises were written in Sindhi on astronomy, medicine and history during the eighth and ninth centuries. Shortly afterwards, Pir Nooruddin, an Ismaili Missionary, wrote Sufistic poetry in Sindhi language. His verses, known as "ginans", can be taken as the specimen of early Sindhi poetry. He came to Sindh during the year 1079 AD. His poetry is an interesting record of the language which was spoken commonly at that time. He was a Sufi and a preacher of Islam. His verses are, therefore, full of mysticism and religion.
After him, Pir Shams Sabzwari Multani, Pir Shahabuddin and Pir Sadardin are recognized as poets of Sindhi language. We even find some verses composed by Baba Farid Ganj Shakar, in Sindhi language. Pir Sadruddin (1290–1409 AD), was a great poet, saint and Sufi of his time. He composed his verses (ginans) in Lari and Katchi dialects of Sindhi. He also composed the "ginans" in the Punjabi, Seraiki, Hindi and Gujarati languages. He modified the old script of Sindhi language, which was commonly used by the lohana catse of Hindus of Sindh who embraced Islam under his teaching and were called by him 'Khuwajas' or 'Khojas'.
During Samma Rule of Sindh (1351 AD-1521 AD), Sindh produced may scholars and poets of high stature. Sammas were original inhabitant of Sindh. This period has been captioned as "Basic period for Sindhi poetry and prose". Mamui Faqirs' (Seven Sages) riddles in versified form are associated with this period Ishaq Ahingar (Blacksmith) was also a famous poet of this period. The most important person scholar Sufi and poet of this period is Qazi Qadan (d-1551 AD). He has composed Doha and Sortha form of poetry and are an important landmark in history of Sindhi literature. Shah Abdul Karim Bulri, Shah lutufullah Qadri, Shah Inayat Rizvi Makhdoom Nuh of Hala, lakho lutufullah, Mahamati Pirannath and many others are the renowned literary personalities of this period who have enriched Sindhi language with mystic, romantic and epic poetry.

Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai

The age of Shah Abdul Latif (Kalhora period) is most significant in the history of Sindhi literature. It was during this age that Sindhi was standardized. Sindhi classical poetry achieved its full blossom in the poetic work of Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai. Dr. Sorely, who compared the poetry of the great poets of all major languages of the world, including Greek, Latin and Arabic, in his book Musa Pravaganus, gives first place to Shah Latif for his language and thought. He invented a variant of tanbur, a musical instrument still used when his verses are sung by people who love his literature. He wrote Sassi Punnun, Umar Marvi in his famous book “Shah Jo Risalo”.
Bhittai gave new life, thought and content to the language and literature of Sindh. He traveled to remote corners of Sindh and saw for himself the simple and rustic people of his soil in love with life and its mysteries. He studied the ethos of the people and their deep attachment to the land, the culture, the music, the fine arts and crafts. He described Sindh and its people. Through simple folk tales, Lateef expressed profound ideas about the universal brotherhood of mankind, patriotism, war against injustice and tyranny, and above all the romance of human existence. He was a great musician also and he evolved fifteen new melodies (swaras). The great beauty of his poetry is that his every line or verse is sung till this day with a specific note or melody.
Another notable Sufi poet of Kalhora period is Sultan-al-Aolya Muhammad Zaman whose poetry is published with title Abyat Sindhi. Sachal Sarmast, Saami and Khalifo Nabi Bux Laghari are celebrated poets of the Talpur period in Sindh (1783–1843 AD). Khalifo Nabi Bux is one of the greatest epic poets of Sindh, known for his depictions of patriotic pathos and the art of war. Rohal, Sami, Bedil,Bekas, Misri Shah, Hammal Faqir, Dalpat Sufi, Sabit Ali Shah, Khair Shah, Fateh Faqir and Manthar Faqir Rajar are some of the more noteworthy poets of the pre and early British era.

Early Modern Period

Modern Sindhi literature began with the conquest of Sindh by the British in 1843. The printing press was introduced. Magazines and newspapers brought about a revolution in Sindhi literature. Books were translated from various European languages, especially from English. People were hungry for knowledge and new forms of writing. The accelerated pace of literature production can be judged from the example of Mirza Kalich Beg, who in the last two decades of the nineteenth century and the first two decades of the twentieth wrote more than four hundred books, including poetry, novels, short stories and essays. He also wrote on science, history, economics and politics. Thousands of books were turned out at that time on all forms and facets of literature. Hakim Fateh Mohammad Sewhani, Kauromal Khilnani, Dayaram Gidumal, Parmanand Mewaram, Lalchand Amardinomal, Bheruamal Advani, Dr. Gurbuxani, Jhetmal Parsram, Sayaid Miran Mohammad Shah, Shamsuddin 'Bulbul' and Maulana Din Muhammad Wafai are some of the pioneers of modern literature in Sindhi language.

Modern Sindhi literature

After World War I, the social and economic scene of the world underwent a tremendous change. The aftermath of the war and the socialist revolution of Russia affected the literature of every country. Sindhi literature too was influenced by these trends. Creating new awakening in the minds of the people working in the field of literature, they began to translate the new social consciousness into artistic forms of literature. They were now more objective and less romantic. Progressive thoughts opened the door for new trends in Sindhi literature.
Soon the struggle for freedom from the British also gathered momentum. This gave further momentum to literature. Consciousness about history and cultural heritage of Sindh served as a catalyst for research and intellectual upsurge. Scholars like Allama I. I. Kazi his wife Elsa Kazi, Rasool Bux Palijo, G. M. Syed, Umer Bin Mohammad Daudpota, Pir Ali Muhammad Shah Rashidi, Pir Husamuddin Shah Rashidi, Maulana deen Muhammad Wafai, Chetan Mariwala, Jairamdas Daulatram, Hashoo Kewal Ramani, Bherumal, Mehar Chand Advani, Dr. Abdul Majeed Sindhi (Memon), Badaruddin Dhamraho, Muhammad Ibrahim Joyo, Allah Dad Bohyo,Tirath Wasant and many others produced learned treatises on various aspects of history, culture and other social subjects.
Mir Hasan Ali and Mir Abdul Hussain sangi, Khalifo Gul, Fazil Shah, Kasim, Hafiz amid, Mohammad Hashim, Mukhlis, Abojho, Surat Singh, Khaki, Mirza Qalich Baig, Zia and Aziz were the pioneers of poetry in Persian meter. But the modern form and content of Sindhi poetry were given a new impetus by 'Bewas', Hyder Bux Jatoi and Dukhayal. There have been innumerable poets who have composed verses in the same vein.
The novel and short story became the main forms for prose. Hundreds of novel and short stories were translated from the European and modern languages of Pakistan. World War II saw the emergence of novelists and short story writers like Narain Das Bhambhani, Gobind Malhi, Sushila J. Lalwani, Lokram Dodeja, Sundri Uttamchandani, Popti Hiranandani, Dr. Moti Prakash Sharma, Kala Sharma, G L Dodeja, Padan Sharma, Ghulam Rabbani Agro, Usman Deplai, Jamal Abro, Shaikh Ayaz, Rasheed Bhatti, Hafeez Akhund, Amar Jaleel, Naseem Kharal, Sirajul Haq Memon, Agha Saleem, Anis Ansari, Tariq Ashraf, Ali Baba, Eshwar Chander, Manak, Asghar Sindhi, Adil Abbasi, Ishtiaq Ansari, Kehar Shaukat, Mushtaq Shoro, Shaukat Shoro, Madad Ali Sindhi, Rasool Memon, Akhlaq Asnari, Reta Shahani, Rehmatullah Manjothi, Badal Jamali, Ishaque Ansari, Jan Khaskheli, Hasan Mansoor, Pervez, Shakoor Nizamani, Tariq Qureshi, Munawwar Siraj, Ismail Mangio, Fayaz Chand Kaleri, Ayaz Ali Rind Altaf Malkani and many others. Sindhi dramas have also been flourished during past a few decades. Aziz Kingrani is one of the prominent playwrights who has written scores of Sindhi plays.
For the last several decades, young writers experimented with new forms of prose as well as poetry. Free verses, sonnets and ballads have been written alongside the classical forms of poetry such as Kafi, Vaee, Bait, Geet and Dohira. A few famous poets of today's Sindh are Makhdoom Muhammad Zaman, Talib-ul-Mola, Ustaad Bukhari, Shaikh Ayaz, Darya Khan Rind, Ameen Faheem, and Imdad Hussani. Mubarak Ali Lashari is also a prominent name in literary criticism whose book Kuthyas Kawejan has been published.
In 1952, Noor-ud-din Sarki and Abdul Ghafoor Ansari restructured the literary forum of Sindhi language and called it Sindhi Adabi Sangat. Initially its activities were confined to the city of Karachi. Inspired by the success of its activities in Karachi, interest developed throughout the rest of Sindh, leading to the emergence of branches in other parts of Sindh. It now attracts most of the Sindhi literary figures all over the world; besides branches in Pakistan, there are now chapters overseas as well.

Children's Sindhi Literature

Though Sindhi writers have not given a proper attention towards literature for children, yet many writers and institutions have been creating good stuff for the Sindhi children. Gul Phul is one of the most popular children's magazines in Sindhi. Akber Jiskani, a renowned writer has remained its editor for a long time till his death. Laat is another magazine by Mehran Publication which got instant attention of the readers founded by Altaf Malkani and Zulfiqar Ali Bhatti. Sindhi Adabi Board has also taken measures to promote children's literature by publishing books for children. A spy novel, Khofnaak Saazish is also written by Zulfiqar Ali Bhatti which is published by Mehran Publication. Mehran Publication also published another children's magazine Waskaro in Sindhi in 1990. Sindhi Language Authority has also published books for children.

Sindhi Population

The Sindhi diaspora consists of Sindhi people who have emigrated from the Sindh province in Pakistan to other countries and regions of the world, as well as their descendants. Apart from South Asia, there is a large and well-established community of Sindhis throughout different continents of the world - including Canada, Malaysia, Oman, Singapore, UAE, USA and UK etc.


Within Pakistan, Sindhis have historically maintained contact and settlement connections with the Balochistan region and areas constituting South Punjab. Today, there are many clans in these regions which claim Sindhi heritage; one notable example in southern Punjab is the Mahar tribe. Sindhis who have mixed Balochi origins are known as the Sindhi Baloch; there are many different Baloch tribes which have genetic links in Sindh and vice versa.


See also: Sindhis in India and States of India by Sindhi speakers Following the independence in 1947, most of the Sindhi Hindu community migrated to India. Today, there are over 3.8 million Sindhis living in India. Most of these Sindhi migrants have established settlements in Western India.


It is estimated that around 10,700 Sindhi of Afghanistan are part of a much larger Sindhi people group. Nearly most of the Sindhi in Afghanistan are Hanafite Muslim.


British Sindhis are British citizens or residents who are of Sindhi origin. They comprise a sizable segment of the British Pakistani and British Indian communities.


Many Indian Indonesians belonging to the Hindu faith have origins in the Sindh region. In Australia, there is a small and vibrant community of Sindhis too; the Sydney Sindhi Association is a cultural organisation formed by expatriate Indian Hindu SindhisinSydney. They celebrate the many cultural events which are celebrated back home.

Sindhi سنڌي / सिन्धी /
Total population (2017 Census)
(c. 41 million)
Regions with significant populations
United Arab Emirates341,000
United Kingdom30,000
United States9,800
Hong Kong7,500

Story of Jhulelal Sai
also known as Lal Sai, Uderolal, Varun Dev, Doolhalal and Zinda Pir

Faith has established Jhulelal as the Asht Dev (community God) of sindhis. His Birthday "Cheti Chand" second tithi of Chaitra auspicious for sindhis and is celebrated the world over with traditional pomp and gaiety. But how, when and where in history was the lord of sind born?
The Hindu legend of Jhulelal or the River Diety has its historical or semi-historical beginnings in Sind, an erstwhile province of united India and now a state of Pakistan. During the days of Sapt-Sindhu (land of seven rivers), the mainstream Sindhu and its tributaries were considered life-givers to the people who lived on its banks and drew sustenance from its waters. It was precisely the lure of plentiful water that brought invading hordes of Muslim rulers from the neighbouring Arabian Kingdoms to Sind and India. Having conquered Sind and its adjoining territories, they spread Islam at the point of the sword. In the 10th century A.D. Sind came under the rule of Samras. The Samras being converts from Hinduism to Islam were neither bigots nor fanatics. However, there was no exception in the Sumra region. Being far away from its capital, Thatta maintained its separate identity and influence. Its rulers Mirkshah was not only a tyrant but also a religious fanatic. And as in the wont of many a tyrant, Mirkshah too was surrounded by sycophants. These friends advised him one day : "Spread Islam and you will be granted 'Janat' or eternal bliss after death."
Swayed by the promise, Mirkshah summoned the 'panchs' (representatives) of the Hindus and ordered them : "Embrace Islam or prepare to die". The terrified Hindus begged Mirkshah for time to consider the 'shahi farman' or royal edict. The pompous Mirkshah relented and agreed to give the desperate Hindus forty days to plead with their God. Faced with imminent death, the Hindus turned to God Varuna, the God of the River, to come to their aid. For forty days, they underwent penance. They neither shaved nor wore new clothes, praying and fasting and singing songs in the praise of God Varuna. They beseeched him to deliver them from the hands of their persecutor.
On the fortieth day, a voice was heard from Heaven : "Fear not, I shall save you from the wicked Mirkshah. I shall come down as a mortal and take birth in the womb of Mata Devki in the house of RatanchandLohano of Nasarpur". After forty days of chaliho, the followers of Jhulelal even today celebrate the occasion with festivity as Thanksgiving Day. The oppressed Hindus now anxiously awaited the birth of their deliverer. After three months, the second tithi of Asu month, they got confirmation of the news that Mata Devki has indeed conceived. The River God has incarnated himself in her womb. The Hindus rejoiced and praised the Lord.
On Cheti Chand, two tithis from the new moon of Chaitra, Mata Devki gave birth to a boony boy, A miracle hailed the child's birth. The babe opened his mouth and behold! there flowed the Sindhu with an old man sitting cross-legged on a pala fish. The pala fish as everyone knows is a tasty fish which always swims against the current.
To welcome the newborn 'avatar', unseasonal clouds gathered and brought down torrential rains. The child was named 'Udaichand' (Uday in Sanskrit means moon-beams). Udaichand was to be the light in the darkness. An astrologer who saw the child predicted that he would grow up to be a great warrior and his fame would outlive the child. Udaichand was also called 'Uderolal' (Udero in Sanskrit means 'one who has sprung from water'). Inhabitants of Nasarpur lovingly called the child 'Amarlal' (immortal) child. The cradle where little Udero rested began to sway to and fro on its own. It is because of this that 'Uderolal' became popularly known as 'Jhulelal' or the swinging child. Soon after the child's birth Mata Devki passed away. A little later Ratanchand remarried.
News of the birth of the mysterious child reached Mirkshah who once again summoned the Panchs and repeated his royal threat. Hindus, now quite confident that their saviour had arrived, implored him for some more time informing him that their saviours was none other than the Water God himself. Mirkshah scoffed at the very idea of a child saving the Hindus. "Neither am I going to die nor are you, people going to leave this land alive", he jeered. "I shall wait. When your saviour embraces Islam, I am sure you will also follow suit." With this remark, the haughty Mirkshah threw a challenhe to his Hindu subjects.
The maulvis pressed Mirkshah hard not to let the Hindus of the hook. But the very thought of the child proving more than a match for him amused the conceited ruler. He therefore told the maulvis to wait and watch. As a token precaution, he asked one of his ministers Ahirio, to go to Nasarpur to see things first hand, Ahirio did not want to take any chances. So he took along a rose dipped in deadly poison.
At the very first glimpse of the child, Ahirio was astonished. He had never seen a child so dazzling or more charming. He hesitated, then mustering courage proferred the rose to the child. The child gave a meaningful smile while accepting the rose. He then blew away the flower with a single breath. The flower fell at Ahirio's feet. Ahirio watched stupefied as the babe changed into an old man with a long beard. All of a sudden the old man turned into a lad of sixteen. And then he saw Uderolal on horseback with a blazing sword in his hand. There were row upon row warriors behind him. A cold shiver ran down Ahirio's spine and he bowed his head in reverence. "Have mercy on me Sindhu Lord", he prayed "I am convinced".
On his return Ahirio narrated the miraculous happening to Mirkshah. But Mirkshah was not convinced. He hardened his heart even more. "How can a little baby turn into an old man ? " he mocked. "It looks like you have been fooled by simple magic." But in his heart, Mirkshah was afraid. That night he dreamt a dreadful dream. A child was sitting on his neck. The vision changed to an old man with a flowing beard. And again to a warrior with a drawn sword confronting Mirkshah on the battlefield. Next morning Mirkshah called for Ahirio and gave him orders to counter the threat posed by the child. Ahirio, however, advised Mirkshah not to rush matters.
Meanwhile, the child Uderolal grew in stature and spirit performing miracles and comforting the sick. Residents of Nasarpur were fully convinced that God had come to save them. Uderolal also received the 'Gur Mantar of 'Alakh Niranjan' from Goraknath.
To earn money for the family, Udero's step mother would send him to the market to sell baked beans, Instead of going to the market, Uderolal would go to the banks of the Sindhu. There he would distribute half of the beans among beggars, the poor and the sadhus. The other half, he would offer to the Sindhu. He would them spend the rest of the speaking to little children and the elderly about spiritual wealth. In the evening when it was time to go home, Udero would fish out from the river a container full of fine quality rice. This he would take home and give it to his step mother.
Growing suspicious about her step son's behaviour, the step mother one day despatched Ratanchand to follow him. When Ratanchand witnessed the miracle, he bowed to Uderolalfroma distance and accepted him as the Saviour.
Mirkshah on the other hand was being pressurised by the Maulvis to bring Hindu infidels into the fold of Islam. They gave him the ultimatum. "Order the Hindus to convert or be branded as associate of kafirs." Fearing the wrath of the clerics, Mirkshah decided to meet Uderolal face to face. He asked Ahirio to arrange for a private meeting with Udero. Ahirio who had in the meantime become a devotee of Daryashah, went to the banks of the Indus and pleaded with the Water God to come to his rescue. To Ahirio's amazement, he saw the same old man with a white beard floating on a pala fish. Ahirio's head bowed in adoration and he understood that Uderolal, the Water God, was in fact the other form of Khwaja Khirz. Ahirio then saw Udero leap onto a horse and gallop away with a sword in one hand and a flag in the other.
Udero appeared before Mirkshah and explained to the stubborn ruler : "Whatever you see around you is the creation of only one God, whom you call 'Allah' and the Hindus call 'Ishwar'." The maulvis urged Mirkshah not to pay any heed to the infidels's talks and to arrest him. Mirkshah dithering as usual ordered hos soldiers to arrest Udero.
As the officials of the court moved towards Udero, great waves of water leaped forth inundating the courtyard and crowning Mirkshah and his courtiers. Fire too broke our and the palace was consumed by the flames. All escape routes were sealed. Udero spoke again, "Mirkshah, think it over. Your God and mine are the same. Then, why did you persecute my people ?"
Mirkshah was terrified and begged Udero, "My Lord, I realise my foolhardiness. Please save me and my courtiers." All at once the water receded and the fire died away. Mirkshah bowed respectfully and agreed to treat Hindus and Muslims alike. Before they dispersed, Uderolal told the Hindus to think of him as the embodiment of light and water. He also told them to build a temple in memory of transformation of Mirkshah. "Day in and out", he said "light a candle in the temple and always keep available water for daat (holy sip)".
Uderolal named his cousin, Pagad, as the first Thakur (Priest of the religious sect that believes in Water God). Pagad followed Uderolal wherever he went. Uderolal gave seven sysmbolic things to Pagad. These seven from the essential elements of the Daryahi sect. Uderolal asked Pagad to continue the sacred work of building temples and spread the message.
Selecting a place near village Thijahar, Uderolal gave up his earthly form. Both Hindus and Muslims were present in the large number to witness this mysterious happening. Mirkshah's representatives were also there. No sooner Uderolal's soul left his body, they took charge and wanted to build a 'Turbat' or 'Qaba" at the site according to the dictates of Islam. The Hindus wanted to erect a 'Samadhi' according to Hindu custom. While the debate regard, heavy rains came down a voice said : "Behold ! You shall make my shrine acceptable both to Hindus and Muslims.
Let its one face be a temple and the other a Dargah (Shrine). I belong to all of you." Jhulelal continues to be the unifying force and the centre of all cultural activities of the Sindhi community. The word Sindhi is derived from the river Sindhu (now in Pakistan)." When Sindhi men venture out to sea their women pray to him for their safe return. They offer the Lord prasad of akha, a sweet made from rice, ghee, sugar and flour. Sindhis all over the world greet each other with "Jhulelal Bera-Hee-Paar".


Religious Backdrop of Sindhis

I) Indian Sindhi Saints

Saints are the touch bearers for the masses, the stranger roamers of the darkness. Sindhi Community is highly blessed by ever mighty with numerous saints and spiritual masters born on the Indus land Sindh and Dev Bhoomi India. Read all this to fill the life with light and wisdom generated from the illustrative life journey of famous sindhi saints.

II) Saints of Prem Prakash Panth

Prem Prakash Mandal is among the most progressive religious faith of Sindhis of recent times. This religious panth was established by famous saint of Sindh Swami Tenu Ram [Teoonram] at Tando Adam in Nawabshah district of Sindh, presently part of Pakistan. According to Swami Tenu Ram

hence there is greater stress for being vegetarian in food habits for the followers of the panth. After the partition in 1947 Ulhasnagar become the main activity center of the panth. Though Swami sarvanand has established Amrapur Asthan at Jaipur in 1952 and even today official head quarter of panth is at Jaipur. Swami Shanti Prakash Ji had started many social and religious institutions in the Ulhasnagar and many other cities of Maharashtra. Presently Satguru Swami Dev Prakah Ji Maharaj are guiding masses for the progress on spiritual path and attain Moksha. Satguru Swami dev Prakash Ji has not only constructed Ashram at Haridwar but also starting new Prem Prakash Aashram in various cities of Maharashtra & Gujarat state.
Prem Prakash Mandal is the only religious faith of modern times which have [till date] all the Religious Gurus born and brought up in Sindhi families. "Satnam Sakhi" are the words of greeting each other, among the followers of this panth. Followers of Swami Dev Prakash ji are also using "Jai Shri Krishn".
Here at Gandhinagar Kolhapur Maharashtra Prem Prakash Mandal is quite hyper active for the religious and spiritual awakening of masses. Swami Dev Prakash Maharaj ji visiting frequently and guiding care takers of Prem Prakash Mandal and Swami Shanti Prakash Mahila Aashram. Birthdays of Satguru and other religious days of Prem Prakash Mandal are celebrated in grand styles. For the devotees of other cities free accommodation is provided at Prem Prakash Mandal, situated near Sindhu Bhhavan. Since past 2-3 years on 15 of every month Swami Shanti Prakash Manvanchhit Day is celebrated here.
This is a tradition and customary practice in the Prem Prakash Mandal that any function, celebration starts with the " Dhawaja Rohan" Flag Hoasting and ends With Pallav.For Each Occasion a separate prayer is there.

III) Saints of Sant Nirankari Mission

About Sant Nirankari Mission

Sant Nirankari Mission is yet another major religious faith of Sindhis, though this panth have the originating roots with Sikhism but still have a great impression our the religious behavior of Sindhi Community.
With some specific and unique traditions, custom and worship rituals devotees of this panth have gained a separate identity as "Nirankari Sindhi". Besides the religious & spiritual progress of the devotee Sant Nirankari Mission also pays attention towards the social life and provides free Medical add and arrange blood donation camps at various times and in various cities through out the globe. "Dhan Nirankar" [Shapeless birth less God is great] are the words used by Nirankari to great each other on meeting.

History of Sant Nirankari Mission

First important date of the history of the mission is 25 May 1929 the day when Baba Butasinghji meet with Baba Avtarsinghji in Peshawar ( now in Pakistan). Baba Avtarsinghji was among the early followers of Baba Butasinghji & has dedicated his life for spreading the Braham-Gyan" Without Knowing the God , Worship of God is meaning less". Both were trying to reach as many people as possible with all the patience they were doing the job.
In the year 1943 Baba Butasinghji left the mortal body to become part of Nirankar. After Partition Baba Avtarsinghji shifted to Delhi Where the Sant NirankariMandal being registered to arrange Satsang & other activities to heal the wounds of humanity. The Blessings of Shan shah Baba Avtarsinghji is always with the followers in the form of " SAMPOORAN AVATAR BANI" [religious book of panth].
In the year 1962 Baba ji handed over the responsibility of the day to day work to Baba Gurbachan singhji & started working as a common follower of the mission. Since 1980 Sadguru Baba Hardev singhji are taking care of the mission. Baba ji are of the very strong opinion " Spiritual awareness is the only medium which can lead us towards our goal of Human unity, peaceful co-existent and achieving the world development". Here world Brotherhood is not a dream but is a achievable goal.
The word Nirankar is originated from the "Nirankar" which means without any aakar [shape] & bodiless without any shape is only the God. Sant Nirankari Mission strongly believes that to reach the God it is essential to have a guru who is in light of truth & knows the Braham-Gyan. Panch Prans [Five Principles]
Today more than 1500 branches of mission are working [almost 200 out side India] all over the world. There are about 600 satsangbhavans where daily satsang is held. Mission is trying that irrespective of caste or nationality every human being must feel the divine pleasure in day to day life, for which five principles must be observed by every one. These principles which are also called " PanchPran" Five oaths are :-
1. Body , Mind & Wealth are given by the Nirankar , hence we should treat them as the property of Nirankar God & should not have proud about them.
2. We must not have pride abut Caste, Religion or Varna-aashram.
3. We should not hate any one by way of one's eating or clothing habits.
4. We must live in GrahasthAashram, it not good become Sadhu Sant or Fakir & become a burden on society.
5. Knowledge given by Sad guru should not be shared with others without the permission of sad guru.
Sant Nirankari mission is not only a spiritual organization but also engaged in many social activities. In our country mission is among the one of the institution which conducted " Blood Donation" camps on large scale , beside that mission is also running about 150 charitable hospitals in various Satsangbhavans, one of such is working in Gandhinagar Kolhapur also. To help the widows & poor needy women mission is conducting stitching & embroidery classes.


Teri Oat Sahara Tera, Tan Man GholGhumaniyan|
KaheAvtarTere Hi Data Din Rati Gun Gawan |
EkTuNirankar, EkTu Hi Nirankar ||

Main Hana SadaBhulanshar - 2
TuHai Data Bakshanhar - 2
EkTu Hi Nirankar, EkTuNirankar ||

TeraRoopHai Eh Sansar - 2
Sab Da BhalaKaroKartar - 2
MeriMangHai Eh Datar - 2
EkTu Hi Nirankar, EkTu Hi Nirankar ||

Mera Dhole Na Etbar -2
BakshoShardha Bhakti Pyar -2
Karana Main Santa Da Satkar -2
EkTu Hi Nirankar, EkTu Hi Nirankar ||


He SamrathParmatama, He NirgunNirankar |
Tu Karta HaiJagatKa, Tu Sab KaAadhar |

KanKan Mein Hai Bas Raha,TeraRoopApar |
Teen KaalHaiSatyaTu, MithyaHaiSansar |

GhatGhatVasi He Prabhu, AvnashiKartar |
Daya Se Teri HoanSabhi, Bhavsagar Se Paar |

NirakarSakarTu, Jag KePalanhar |
Hai Be Ant Mahima Teri, Data Aprampaar |

Param Pita Parmatama, Sab Teri Santan |
BhalaKaro Sab KaPrabhu, Sab Ka Ho Kalyan|

IV) Saints of Shri Anandpur Darbar

About Advait Mat :Advate Mat : Anandpuri Kutiya : Shri Anandpur Darbar

Spiritual MasterAmong the religious faiths of Sindhis this panth or mat can be said unique as here in this mat like the Radhaswami [Radhasaomi / RadhaSoami] more stress is for the spiritual progress of the followers. Though there are certain ritual like other Hindu religious faiths and tradition of master is followed in this mat also but still more stress is for the mediation of Shabad. Sri Swami Anandpuri ji Maharaj (1782-1872) also known as Maharaja Paramhans Dayal Ji are looked as the founder of this mat. Sri Swami Swarupan and ji Maharaj, famous as Param SantJi and as Sri Nagli Sahib were the second master of the mat and left the physical world for heavenly abode on 9th April 1936 in the village of Nagli, near Meerut. Shri Swami Vairag Anand Ji Maharaj were the the third master of the mat. The common philosophy of masters of this mat Wherever I go there will be no dearth of devotees, as I belong to all, and all belong to me. Present master Shri Data Din Dayal MaharajJi are the fifth master.
During the times of Shri fourth Padshahi, it was decided to construct a temple of panth and accordingly work was started for "Shri Anandpur Sahib" in the year 1939 at Ashok Nagar and was in continuation till 1964. After the independence on 22 - 04 - 1954 the institution was registered as "Shri Anandpur Trust". The huge monument is inclusive of "Shri Anand Shanti Bhavan" constructed from pure white marble, residential blocks and lungarbhavan. During the autumn the garden surrounding the building start blossoming with multi colored flowers and beauty of place goes beyond imagination.
Yet another famous ashram of the mat is situated at Urali near the Pune in the Maharashtra, the place is also famous as the natural therapy center. Makar Sankrat and Viyas Pooja are the most celebrated day of the mat. At Urli ashram every year several thousands devotees gathered from all parts of the country and abroad on this celebration of "Makar Sankrat". Similarly every year a grand celebration is held on second day of June for celebrating birthday of third Padshahi Swami Vairag AnandJi Maharaj.
This mat is a spiritual way of attaining true knowledge [Braham Gyan] and become unanimous with God by purifying the thought process of human beings, here person is not important but emphasis is given on the ideology, probably this is the reason for less availability of information about this mat. Recently during the train journey I meet with one of the follower of this panth, traveling to Urli, for submitting "Mini Swaroop" [Photo] of Guru Ji, as ordered by Guru Ji. During this I feel that devotees are trying to keep the worship rituals hidden under the secret cover and try to avoid talking on this topic. Here at Gandhinagar Kolhapur considerable Sindhi population belongs to followers of this religious path and recently have constructed a grand "Anandpuri Kutiya" Satsang Bhavan on Kolhapur road.

V) Shri Radhasaomi Panth

Philosophy of Panth

Present era can be termed as era of science & technology and our life is running with many comforts but this is also fact that due to this life style we are also running under the pressures of stress and hence in most need of relaxation for which hope a ray of relief emerging out from the spiritual world. We are in the immediate need of understanding self to get in touch of omnipresent unanimous God. One Sindhi Religious Panth, spiritual thought process, deals with the realization and achievement of God in more scientific way was established way back in 1861 at Agra - The city of Taj by Baba Shivdayal Ji. According to previous master of this sindhi religious stream Maharaj Charan Singh Ji, Radha Soami is not a religious organization but is a school, where one can get training of spirituality in such effective way that while living on earth, can realize and achieve God without the traditional temple worship way. Just we have to turn our mind and heart towards the God even while performing our mortal duties towards our relatives, friends, society & humanity. According to them this scientific method is divisible [on the basis of Nam, Shabad or word] into three different parts namely :
SIMRAN: Repeatedly repetition of Pavitra [Holy] Nam, while doing regular work. [Only spiritual master of the panth can give "Nam" to devotee and as we know unmarried and below 24 years are not entitles for "Nam"]
DHYAN : Keeping attention fixed towards the prime object of life i.e. realisation of God.
BHAJAN : Music always helped human beings in reaching to desired destination hence listing or singing divine shabad will carry us nearer to God.
Radha Soami ideology pushes hard for being vegetarian. Use of Alcohol, Drugs and other toxic substances is strictly prohibited for the followers of this panth. It is essential for devotee to keep very high moral values. Working for the humanity is the basic principle. Philosophy of this panth says every soul is "Radha" and is on the earth only to make efforts for meeting with prime and unbirth soul "Soami".
Swami Shivdayal Ji were not in favor of advertising or wooing the disciples for the expansion of this path of "SHABAD YOGA MEDITATION" created by him, any how at the time of his death in the year 1878, there were few thousand of people were started following this panth. Swami ShivdayalJi didn't appoint any successor hence a division was observed in the panth and out of six different Satsang, One established by Jaimal Singh at Beas, become most famous Radha Soami Satsang.
After the death of Baba Jaimal Singh [29-12-1903] till 1948 Maharaj Sawan Singh Jihave worked as the spiritual head of the panth. From 1948 to 1951 Satsang was looked by Baba Jagat Singh Ji, who before leaving for heavenly abode [22-10-1951] nominated Maharaj Charan Singh Ji as the next spiritual master. During this time panth attained enormous growth in number of followers. A massive heart attack had taken the life of Maharaj Charan Singh Ji on 01-06-1990 and as per their will, Baba Ji's nephew "Gurinder Singh Dhilon" started working as the spiritual master of the Satsang.

Death Rituals

In Hindu philosophy, death has been compared to the ‘shedding off’ of an old garment for a new one. Rituals to be performed after cremation till the 12th day after death are stated below.Sindhis generally observe many rituals throughout their lives. However in this age of rapid changes and urban living and the breakdown of the extended family, most Sindhis are ignorant of the customs associated with death. The last rites are extremely important and when death comes so suddenly, many people are totally unaware of or even know what has to be done. This section provides an authoritative text on death rituals. The following is the gist of what should be done on the death of a loved one.

Upon dying at home

When a person is close to death the family members should inform the family priest (purohit) or find and appoint a purohit who will direct and conduct the final rites. Begin the chanting of the Vishnu SahasranamaStotram or continuously play a CD of the same within the hearing the of dying one. If the Vishnu sahasranamaStotra cannot be recited then any other text or name of God should be recited or played. Other types of prayers or bhajans can also be sung but without emotion. Most hospices and hospitals in Australia will accomodate this practice in some way — don't be hesitant to discuss it with the palliative care nurse.
When it is seen that death is very near — the dying person should be transferred to a new grass mat on the floor if the death occurs at home. They should not be allowed to die on a bed for 2 reasons:-
(1) Death should take place in the arms of Mother Earth and the dying person should remain conscious for as long as possible listening to the recitation of the name of God.
(2) The bed needs to be discarded afterwards as no ne will sleep in it.
Pour a few spoons of Ganges water/Tulasi water into the mouth either at the time of death or soon after a person is dead.
An sesame oil lamp (with one wick only) and a single agarbathi are lit and kept near the head of the body. A photograph of deceased family's favourite deity may also be placed at the head side. Outside the house prepare a fire in an earthen pot using a few pieces of wood, charcoal and camphor. This fire should be kept alive all the time.
When it is ascertained that life has departed from the body, the son or person who inherits the property(of the parent should take a bath). The chief mourner or KARTA (called PINNIWALA in Sindhis); in the case of the father it is the elder son and in the mother's case it is usually the youngest son. Daughters may be appointed by the dying person to perform their rites.

Upon death taking place in a hospital

When a person is pronounced dead by the doctor, one needs to obtain the death certificate from the appropriate authorities. Contact the priest and a funeral director and make arrangements for collecting the body and booking the crematorium. Since the coffin is to be burned, it is prudent to get the cheapest and most simple coffin available. No one will be in the mood to discuss the price of the coffin but one should not pay more than necessary. Understandably, the price varies from company to company.
Some funeral directors will allow the body to be taken back to the home for the final rites. This of course is the preferable way and should be discussed beforehand.

Preparing the body

The funeral directors then collect the corpse and take it for washing and dressing. Most funeral directors will accommodate the family who wishes to wash the body themselves. The family members who can, should assist in this service and not leave it to strangers to do it. Close relatives rub oil and seeka (bath powder) on the head of the dead person before it is bathed. If the condition of the body permits, and the family desire it — it can be given a bath with abishegam materials — milk, yoghurt, honey, ghee, sandal wood paste etc. Males and widows should be dressed in white. Married women and girls should be dressed in coloured garments orange, yellow or red. The big toes are tied together with a piece of string. Place the hands with the two thumbs tied together on the chest as if he or she is doing a namaskar. The whole procedure should be done without commotion and weeping.
After the body has been dressed up, it should be placed for viewing in the coffin. For men and widows either vibuti or chandanam is used to decorate the forehead. For females the turmeric powder and kumkumam are used. A simple garland of flowers and tulasi leaves should be worn around its neck.

Customs to be observed at the Home

If the body is brought back to the home it should be brought in head-first and placed on the floor which is cleaned by cow-dung-cake (Cow’s Chit), with its head to the East and legs towards west. While the family members and friends sit around the coffin — Thevaram or Divyaprabandham or bhajans can be sung without musical accompaniment. It can be kept at home for as long as the family desire about an hour or so to allow for people to gather.
During the time when dead body is at home, it is bathed by family males in case of death of a male and family females in case of death of a female. Then body is dressed and perfume is sprayed on the body and in the room the body is lying. There after the priest recites mantras and performs the rituals. Continuing the rites some gold, tulsi leaves and gangajal is put inside the mouth of the dead body.
Before the coffin is removed, the ladies should pay their last respects first by placing rice at or near the mouth. The relatives follow suit followed by friends. Women are not advised to perform this ceremony at the crematorium. The names of deceased family's favourite Gods should be recited continuously and throughout. The chief mourner should shave his head.Before the coffin is removed a rice ball (Pinda) is offered at the place where the person died or where the coffin has been. The coffin is taken out of the house with the legs first. As it is taken out of the house another rice ball is offered on the threshold
The coffin is placed in the hearse and driven to the crematorium. Two persons should accompany the body; the Karta (PINNIWALA) who performs the rites and one other who could be an elder in the family. The Karta should carry the earthen pot with the fire in it.
Those that remain at home will thoroughly clean the house and wash the floors etc. All them take a bath after rinsing the clothes they were wearing and other things used. Discard the bed, mat or any other spread on which the body was lying.

At the Crematorium

At the crematorium, the coffin is carried from the vehicle to the platform with legs pointing South first. It is preferable to keep the coffin in such a way that the leg faces the fire chamber. In case it is not in this direction (e.g. facing the gathering), please ensure that it is carried with the legs first when entering the fire chamber.
After placing the coffin on the platform with its feet to the south, the performer of the funeral rites should sit, along with the other mourners, facing the south. The offering of 3 pindas should be performed (KapalKriya), then the PunyahaVachana ceremony is done to purify the corpse prior to it's consignment of the fires of the crematorium. The holy water is sprinkled over the body. The body is covered with a new blanket.
Another pinda should be placed in the hand of the deceased. The corpse should be anointed with the ghee and wood chips placed in the coffin. The eyes, mouth ears and nostrils are covered with dollar coins.
Last prayers — this is the time to recite the prayers which can be either mantras, slokas from the Bhagavad Gita, the Upanishads, Thevaram, DivyaPrabandham, Bhajans etc.
After the prayers are recited, the Karta (Pinniwala) circumambulates the coffin anti-clockwise three times, usually starting at the feet, followed by close relatives. Others could do the same but just one round instead of three. A few grains of rice, or coins or flowers are sometimes placed at the mouth by the relatives and friends after each round.
Finally the Karta carries a clay pot of water on the left shoulder. Another person - next of family, walks behind him with a sharp iron instrument. Both of them go around the coffin anti-clockwise three times. When the person carrying the pot reaches the head each time, he stops for a second or two, and the one with the iron instrument hits the pot gently to make a hole so that water flows out from the hole. The first hole is made at the bottom of the pot, the second one at the centre above the first hole and the third one at the top, above the centre hole. This water is splashed with the back of the left hand onto the corpse by the person who follows. This procedure is repeated till three holes are made. At the third round, the pot is dropped behind the person carrying it. He walks away without turning back or looking at the body. The water or Ganga is the medium that separates the dead from the living in this case the nearest of the kin.
A fire should be lit in the clay vessel according to the injunctions in the sacred texts. Having invoked and worshipped the fire-god named Kravyada with flowers and grains of white rice the fire is placed upon the coffin as it is pushed into the burner.
Post Cremation Rites After leaving the crematorium the Karta offers three libations of water with sesame seeds. The Karta should abstain from shedding tears while giving the post cremation libations, because the deceased has to consume all the tears and snot that is shed. Whatever things that were brought from the home should be left behind or discarded and are not to be taken back home. Keep the place clean.
The mourners should then all go for bath in a river or the sea chanting, nowadays at home itself some bhajans or kirtans, with the youth walking ahead. If the sea bath is not possible then all the mourners should at least visit the beach, spend some time there and then return home. At the door of their houses they should chew neem leaves, rinse their mouths with water and touching black sesame seeds, lawn grass, or any other auspicious thing and touching their feet lightly on a stone should enter the house and take a shower immediately with their clothes on.
At home the female karta (PINNIWALI) cleans the room where dead body was kept. And there after entire house is cleaned and made ready for the further rituals.Tereafter PINNIWALI (Female) goes to hand pump with tooth paste. There she leaves the figure full paste and 2.5 hand full (Anjalis) of water. Then she comes back home with a bowl of submerged earthen clay (MultaniMitti) wherein the Mukhiya/ the eldest lady applies multanimitti on her head and hair. Thereafter she takes bath applying multanimitti on her body without applying soap. Similarly all other family ladies also apply multanimitti of the same bowl and take bath.
Till this time any type of fire is not inflated inside home. After taking bath PINNIWALI prepares tea and gives tea and biscuits to the nearby Kanya (Preferably 9-10 years). Thereafter water food or beverages is prepared at home is first given to the same Kanya.
In the evening of the day of cremation The first food after the cremation is sent by In-Laws of the chlildern, or prepared from the money given by them.
When the sun is setting the chief mourner (PINNIWALA) should light a lamp of sesame oil and place it under a tree out of the draft. If this is not possible then the lamp(AkhandJyot) should be lit in a corner of the house and kept burning for ten days or until the completion of the mourning rituals. At the time of lighting the lamp recite the following prayer and then pour water around the lamp.
" om andhakaar amahaaghorem ahatta atamas-aavrute tamo nivaaranarthaaya imam
deepam dadaamy aham "

"O deceased one, surrounded by a terrible darkness, encompassed by the mode of nescience, for the removal of that darkness, I offer this lamp to you" If possible a learned person should be invited in the evening to give a talk on the temporary nature of time and the unsubstantial nature of the universe. One should tell discuss about the emptiness of life and the futility of searching for substantiality in the human body which resembles the trunk of a banana tree. The body is constituted of five elements and if it returns to the elements through natural causes what is there to grieve over? The earth, ocean and even deities are bound to be destroyed. The same fate awaits the entire universe which has arisen like a bubble. How it can escape destruction? Thus, one should speak to mourners about the transient nature of life.
3rd Day Rituals
On third day all four kaandhis go to cremation ground to collect bones (Asthis/ Ashes) of the departed soul. After collecting the ashes, the earthen pot filled with ashes is not brought to home but is kept in some holy place like temple or gurudwara. Thereafter PINNIWALI (Lady Karta) again goes to hand pump empty stomach and offers 1.5 handful of water to the departed soul. After coming back home all the four kandhis and 1 Pinniwali take bath. Thereafter food is prepared and all five of them have it first. It’s only after them that the other family members have the food.
Thereafter in the evening there is 3rd day baithak wherein all the people of acquaintance get together and pray for the departed soul.
4th to 10th Day
In the early morning, PINNIWALI after taking bath prepares a special food (Fat Big Roti) with vegetables and offers it to Cow with tea, biscuits, sweets, water and the preferred food of departed soul. The utensils in which the food is offered are kept aside till 12th day and this special food is offered daily morning till the 10th day.
From 4th day onwards religious prayers are performed in the evening at home by offering fresh garland on the photo of the departed soul and akhandjyot is lit which keeps burning till 12th day till the time of pinddaan.
11th Day
Asthi (Ash) Visarjankriya is performed by the PINNIWALA and one more kandhi wherein they collect ases from the temple/ gurudwara they had kept it after the cremation ceremony. After collecting Asthis they go to the holy river (River Ganga Majorly) and submerge the same there with Mantra kriya by religious priest.
12th Day
On 12th Day PindDaan rite is performed by the priests. After the pooja, the priest, the kanya, all four kandis and Pinniwali sit together and take lunch. Thereafter lunch is offred to rest of the crowd.

Rules for Mourning

• The "mourners" are considered to be the close family members on the male side. Women do not observe mourning rituals for their own parents but for the parents of their husbands, since through marriage they change their "gotra". Sons and daughters observe the rituals for their parents. Parent's do not observe for their children. Siblings can observe the rituals for each other. The mourners should not eat meat or drink alcohol, wear perfumes or shave during the 10 days of mourning from the day of death onwards.
• Showering should be done daily with the minimum amount of luxury.
• The mourners should sleep on the ground and not engage in any form of entertainment.
• It is customary not to greet anyone or even to return a greeting.
• Visitors to the house should not be entertained in anyway.
• These rules should be observed until the 10th day ceremonies.
• If due to social and professional circumstances these rules of mourning cannot be observed for all 10 days they should be observed for at least 3 days.
Post Mourning Rituals are performedon the 12thday (Possibly in the evening of 12th day after the death. Rituals are performed in order to mark the termination of the social isolation of mourning and the returning to normal life.

Sindhi Cuisines/ Dishes

Sindhi cuisine (Sindhi: سنڌي کاڌا) refers to the native cuisine of the Sindhi people from Sindh, Pakistan. The daily food in most Sindhi households consists of wheat-based flat-bread (phulka) and rice accompanied by two dishes, one gravy and one dry. Today, Sindhi food is eaten in many countries including India, where a sizeable number of Hindu Sindhis migrated following the independence in 1947.

Historical influences

The arrival of Islam within South Asia influenced the local cuisine to a great degree. Since Muslims are forbidden to eat pork or consume alcohol and the Halal dietary guidelines are strictly observed, Muslim Sindhis focus on ingredients such as beef, lamb, chicken, fish, vegetables and traditional fruit and dairy. Hindu Sindhi cuisine is almost identical with the difference that beef is omitted. The influence of Central Asian, South Asian and Middle Eastern cuisine in Sindhi food is ubiquitous.

Food for special occasions

Certain dishes are served on special occasions such as Diwali a Bahji (vegetable dish) called Chiti-Kuni is made with seven vegetables. Special dishes are also served on recovery from serious illness for example when someone makes a full recovery from Chicken Pox, it is common to make an offering and make "Mitho lolo", a sweet griddle-roasted flatbread: the dough is wheat flour mixed with oil (or ghee) and sugar syrup flavored with ground cardamom.

  • Sai bhaji chawal, a popular dish from Sindh consists of white steamed rice served with spinach curry which is given a 'tarka' with tomatoes, onions and garlic.
  • Koki is another popular Sindhi flat-bread that is prepared with wheat flour and goes well with any dal, sabzi or even curd or chai.
  • Seviyan (Vermicelli), typically served as a sweetened (sometimes milk-based) dessert, is popular: Muslim Sindhis serve it on Bakri-Id and Eidul-Fitr. On special religious occasions, Mitho lolo, accompanied with milk, is given to the poor.
  • Mitho lolo is also served with chilled buttermilk called Matho on various occasions.
  • Kheer Kharkun is a special sweet dish which is prepared and served on Eidul-Fitr, it is prepared by mixing dates and milk, and slowly simmering the mixture for few hours. The dish is eaten hot in winters and cold in summers.
  • Taryal Patata, a staple of Sindhi diet, is a form of thinly sliced, pan fried potatoes with local spices. They are consumed in most rural households typically at dinner but can be consumed even for breakfast and lunch alongside other meals. One popular Sindhi way of having "patatas" is to eat it with plain white rice with daal to accompany it.
  • Pallo Macchi, a popular Sindhi delicacy, is Hilsha fish prepared with numerous cooking methods. It can be deep fried and garnished with local spices, can be cooked with onions and potatoes into a traditional fish meal or barbequed. The fish often has roe, which is called "aani" in Sindhi and is enjoyed as a delicacy. Often fried alongside the palla and served with the fish fillets.
  • Palli, is a saag or leafy green from the Chickpeas, and is enjoyed either cooked by itself like spinach or with fish cooked in the palli and called "Machi Palli". The saag has a unique flavor and is quite different from spinach or mustard saag and has a slightly sour and salty taste to it. It can take getting used to for the uninitiated.


Beh (simply means 'Lotus root' in English). A high quality lotus root is grown in the North of Sindh which is then cooked in clay-pot using various spices, which then results in an excellent delicacy that is famous all over Pakistan. Sindhi Briyani, Sindhi Curry, Sabu Dal Chawar (yellow daal with rice).


  • Thadal (famous Sindhi drink made from almonds and khashkhaash).
  • Khirni (hot drink made with milk, flavours of cardamoms and saffron).
  • Sherbet (drink made from sandal wood).
  • Falooda (vermiclli and ice on top of an ice cream)
  • Lassi (Yogurt made traditional drink)

Bhee Patata


Gathadi jo Acchar-final




Khumbiyun ji Daag

Makroli ayyen Phool Pataasha

Mesu Paak

Methi Macchi

Mithi Dhabha

Mitho Lolo

Saaun Ji Mithai

Sanna Pakoras


Sehyoon Patata


Sindhi Biryani

Atte ji Churi

Daal Pakwaan

Sindhi Gehar

Sindhi Koki

Sindhi Maal Puaa



Sukko Fruit laayi


Sindhi Papad

Sindhi Sai Bhaji

Sindhi Vaangand Patata


Bassar Koki

Sindhi Festivals


Chliho Sahib

Cheti Chand


Cheti Chand

One of the first civilizations of human history, the Sindhi's have a rich and clearly distinct cultural heritage and are very festive. The most important festival for Hindu Sindhis is the birthday of Lord Jhoolelal and Cheti Chand.

  1. Cheti Chand

    Celebration of the birth of the Water god (VarunDevta) SaiUderolal, popularly known as Jhoolelal . So much has been said and written about it that it would be superfluous to mention the event again. In Sindh the beginning of the New Year was considered ChetiChand . Some businessmen opened new account books on Cheti Chand; many however, did that on the eve of Diwali. On the full moon day, people used to go to a river or lake and offer 'Akho' with a pinch of rice mixed with milk and flour. If there was no river or 'Darya', the ritual was performed at a well. Even Sindhi Sikhs go to temples or Gurudwaras, because Guru Nanak's birthday also falls on Pūrnima.
  2. Sagra

    (Sacred thread) Sindhi Bhaibands often lived in foreign countries; therefore, their wives were always worried about the good health of their husbands. For this purpose they performed pooja and fasted on four Mondays of Sawan month, after which they perform pooja, distribute sweet rice and then had the sacred thread tied on the wrist by the priest ( Bandhan ). Here in India, the priests have made a show business which costs nearly 500-800 rupees, a money making gimmick.
  3. Mahalakshmi-a-jo-Sagro

    Sacred Thread (Mahalakshmi-a-jo-Sagro) This sacred thread had 16 strips and 17 days. On the day when the sacred thread was to be untied, it was celebrated as an important day and special savouries like satpura and pakwan of Suji& Maida were made and distributed firstly to the priests and the poor and afterwards the remaining savouries were used by family members.
  4. Fasts In Sindhis

    generally Mondays & Saturdays, Giyaras or Umaas were observed as fasts ( vrats ). During the fast of Satyanarayan and nine days of Ekaanaas, only one time meal was generally taken.
  5. Teejri

    This festival takes place in the month of Sawan when married women and girls paint their hands and feet with Mehndi, go on fast for the whole day, during which they used to play games, swing in Jhulas and sing love songs. Orthodox or strict Sindhi women do not even drink a sip of water until they break their fast. In the night after making an offering to the moon, they would break the fast. This is also referred to as the Sindhi version of KarwaChauth
  6. AkhanTeej

    In Sindh, AkshayaTritiya is known as Akhandi which is celebrated in Vaisakha. On this day new earthen pots of water(matkas) were kept and everyone was offered clean and cool water. The significance of this day was to offer water to the thirsty. Hence at every nook and corner, sharbat, with pieces of apple in it, was offered to passersby along with 'prasad' . On this day, it was also customary to send new earthen pots and fruits to priests and Gurdwara.
  7. Aunn-Matyo

    In the month of Sawan, on the Baaras of Krishna Paksha, cereals were changed in food, i.e. instead of wheat and rice, chapatis made of gram flour (Besan) are eaten.
  8. Ban Badhri

    During the month of 'Bado', during the Baaras of Shukla Paksha, god Varun had taken avtaar. In lieu of that small insects like ants etc. were fed Gur (jaggery) and Musti. Married daughters are invited by their parents for meals.
  9. Somavati Umaas

    During certain months Umaas takes place on a Monday. That day is considered important for having a "dumb dip' in the waters; without talking to anyone early in the morning. It is also, called 'GungeeUmaas" .
  10. Nandhi and Vaddi Thadri

    Both of these take place in the month of Sawan . On the day before Thadree day, people cook lola (sweet flour cakes) and rote (fried cakes) because there has to be no lighting of fire in the house on the Thadree day. The lolas and Rotes are eaten with curd or pickle. On that day drops of water are also sprinkled on the cooking fire to appease Sitladevi Mata.
  11. Janamashtami

    Ram Navmi and ShivratriSince Krishna was born after midnight, on Janamashtami, bhajans and kirtan are held in temples till midnight. On Ram Navmi, Lord Rama's birthday is celebrated. On Shivratri people drink 'Thaadhal' with some 'bhang' in it, after making offering of it in the Mahadev temple. In the villages and cities, big pots of 'Taahri' (sweet rice) are prepared and distributed among all.
  12. Tirmoori

    On this festive day parents send ladoos & chiki( Laaee ) made of Tils to their married daughters. On the Makar Sankrant day the sun moves from south to north. It is therefore also called 'utraan' or 'Tirmoori' . In Mahabharat battle Bhisham Pitamah did not breathe his last till ‘utraan' since on this day there happens flush of light in DevLok .
  13. Dussehra

    Few days before Dussehra there used to be Ramlila program which was attended by throngs of people. On the Dussehra day colourful effigies of Ravana, Kumbhakarna and Meghnath were burnt.
  14. Diyaaree

    Two days before Diwali, Sindhis start lighting Diyaas (earthen lamps) from 'DhanTeras' . The bazaars are full with prospective consumers. Friends and relatives meet one another with affection and extended pleasantries and sweetmeats. In the night, LaxmiPoojan takes place when all the members of the family pray with reverence and respect. In the night, people used to take in their hands a stick to which a rag dipped in oil was tied which was burnt. It was called 'Mollawaro' ; everyone shouted 'Mollawaro..... Mollawaro'....
  15. The Giyaras of Kati

    Before the independence of Pakistan in 1947, on this day people in Sindh used to be engaged in giving charity. The whole bazaar would be full with hundreds of beggars and the needy, who would spread a cloth before them, on which people, according to their might, would throw money, Bhugra, fruits etc. The jugglers used to arrange their Tamashas on the road with monkeys and bears dancing on the tunes played by the jugglers. An atmosphere of gaiety and gay prevailed all through the day.
  16. Navratra

    During this days devotees of Devi ate one meal a day and did not even shave and cut hair. Ladies sang bhajans. In Nagarparkar they used to dance like Garba in Gujrat.
  17. Lal Loi

    In some parts of Sindh, the Sindhi community celebrated LaalLoi (Lohri) on the 13th of January every year. During Lal Loi kids used to bring wood sticks from their grand parents and aunties and like a fire camp burnt these sticks in the night with people enjoying, dancing and playing around fire. Some ladies whose wishes were fulfilled offered coconuts in the fire and distributed prasad'Sesa' ; this continued till midnight.
  18. Rakhri

    During the Purnima of Sawan month sisters tied a Rakhi to their brothers. This day is called "Rakhree Bandhan'. Even the near cousin sisters used to put Rakhis on cousin brothers. Sisters used to come from far off places and towns to specially tie Rakhis to their brothers. There was so much affection and love. Those cities and places where there were rivers or sea, people used to offer coconuts and milk to the God of Waters 'VarunDevta so that those who were traveling in ships and boats should have a safe and sound journey.
  19. Shraadh

    Just as in India the month of September 'Bado' was meant for Krishna Paksha as Pitar Pakhiya. Any member of the family who had died on particular (tithi) day and date, a Shraadh was offered for the solace of the deceased's soul. The Brahmins were given food and Dakhshna. It is said that AryaSamaj carried out a strong movement against Shraadh, but the Shraadhs continued because of the faith of people since they felt that through this method the deceased members of the family are remembered and all the family members have a good gathering.
  20. Nagapanchmi (Gogro)

    During those days whenever the snake charmer brought snakes, they were given some Dakhshna and also milk for the snakes. Nagpanchami is also called Gogro. It is a folklore from Kutch and Gujarat.
  21. Holi

    The festival of colours in which all the young and old join together to express their joy at the change of season. Some people correlate Holi festival with Holika, the sister of Hirnakashyap, mythological father of Bhagat Prahlad.

Sindhi Clothing and Accessories


Up until the 1840s, women wore the lehenga and choli, and men the lungi or the traditional Sindhi shalwar/suthan. Thereafter, up to the 1930s women began to wear the suthan and Sindhi cholo which was the typical dress for all women of Sindh.
In the past, the younger women wore velvet or amber pyjama (suthan) both at home and outside. Also they wore a long skirt (jablo) on top and a thick poplin blouse (koti) and a white rawa (a muslin head scarf). Middle aged and young ladies wore churidarpyjama (sorhisuthan). Elderly ladies used to wear a white sheet (chaadar) to cover her body with only a peep hole (akhiri) deftly contrived. Over time, older ladies started to wear the SalwarKurta with Slippers (sapato).
The original dress of the Sindhi male was dhoti, jamo (top) and achipagirhi (White pagri). The traditional clothes of Sindh can still be seen on men and women today.


During the medieval period and prior to the Mughal rule, the costumes worn by the people of Sindh resembled the dresses worn in Iraq and adjoining countries.The dresses included short tunics and Iraqi style long robes. If any drawers were used, they were of the Iraqi style, such as the pantaloons which were also adopted in neighbouringMultan and also in the coastal areas of Gujarat. However, the use of such Iraqi clothes in Sindh was limited to Mansura, the Arab capital city, established 712 C.E. and was not universally adopted throughout the region. Arab rule in Sindh ended in 1050 C.E. Further, alongside these dresses, Sindhis also wore other traditional attire.

Traditional Sindhi kancha (shalwar)

The traditional Sindhi drawers are the shalwar style adopted from Iraq and neighbouring countries. The Sindhi shalwar, also called kancha, can be described as wide pantaloons which do not begin to gather at the knees as does the modern Sindhi suthan, and are wide at the ankles. The traditional Sindhi shalwar is similar to the Gujarati kafni, very wide, but the Sindhi shalwar is plaited at the waist. Both garments are loose down to the ankles, where they are gathered. Both garments have the same origins in the pantaloons of Iraq,which are still worn by the Kurds.
The Sindhi shalwar however, was not universally adopted in the region, where it was limited to Mansura. In time too, Arab rule which introduced the Iraqi dress, ended in the 11th century. Accordingly, the traditional Lungi, ghagracholi and other costumes continued in use.
It is not until the migration of people from Balochistan beginning during the 15th century C.E. and picking up pace during the 18th century C.E.that the use of the shalwar in Sindh was introduced on a wide level. However, the Sindhi shalwar, as the earlier version worn in Mansura, is not as wide and loose as the Balcohishalwar, which is very wide and loose.
A suthan is traditionally tight fitting below the knees or around the ankles whereas any style of shalwar is loosely gathered at the ankles and does not tighten towards the lower parts of the legs.
Although it was not customary for women to wear the suthan during the early 19th century, men were seen wearing the traditional pantaloon style Sindhi shalwar/suthan during this period. However, the suthan was not universally adopted by members of all religions to begin with, but in 1872 it was noted that the use had spread to a wider audience.

Female Dress:-


Before the advent of the suthan and Sindhi cholo, the traditional dress was lengha (jablo) choli which is still worn by women in various parts of Sindh. Women in the Thakparkar district wear a ghagra, a heavier version of the lehnga, with either a loose or fitted choli, or a kancera, a fully embroidered, backless blouse, held on by small cap sleeves and strings.
Another upper garment is the gaji (pullover shirt) which is worn in the mountain areas of Sindh. The gaji is composed of small, square panels, embroidered on silk and sequins. The neck line of the gaji is cut high, and round on one side, with a slit opening extending the other. Unmarried girls wear the opening to the back and married women, to the front.
The original outfit does not require a woman to wear a suthan underneath the lengha, and up until the 1840s, the skirt was commonly worn on its own. Accordingly, the suthan for women is a relatively late adoption. In parts of Sindh, the skirt is worn without the suthan.

Sindhi Suthan and Sindhi cholo

Modern Suthan (chareno)

By the 1930s, the suthan, similar to the shalwar became the traditional lower garment worn by women in Sindh. The Sindhi suthan, also called chareno, is similar to the Punjabi suthan of the Punjab region, is heavily pleated, voluminous on the thighs, slightly narrowed on the knees, gathered in at the instep and pleated to the ankles.


The Sindhi suthan was traditionally accompanied by the Sindhi cholo (boddice) and paro (petticoat/ghagra)but now is worn with a cholo (kameez) only which is loose fitting, and is made in a variety of ways, including the traditional method of the cholo opening at the front to the waist, with very wide sleeves. The traditional cholo can reach down to the ankles.
Women generally wear a dupatta or odani (Veil) with the Sindhi suthan and Sindhi cholo suit to cover their head and shoulders. In the past, women wore a thin muslin scarf (rawa) bigger than the present day dupattas.

Sindhi Julaba

Very loose ankle length garment in hand loom or hand-blocked material with a hood attached, with tie string at "V" opening in the neck and side slits at lower part extending to lower hem. Worn with or without hood in the villages of Sindh and can also be embroidered.

Male Dress:-


The traditional male lower garment includes the lungi/dhoti. The wrap around the waist continues to be popular in the rural areas which is worn with local upper garments such as the angarkho.

Sindhi Suthan and Sindhi angelo

Man in Sindhi long angerkho(1845)

The other outfit worn by males is the modern Sindhi suthan with the traditional peheren (Sindhi shirt) which is also called angerkho, a short form of the kurta and fastened to the side. An alternative name for the top is angeli which is short and left-crossed, covering the chest, the shoulders and the arms. The sleeves are long and pleated. Large and wide pleats cover the belly. The other upper garment is the traditional garment similar to a long gown.

Sindhi cap

Sindh has its own variety of hat- the Sindhi cap.


The shawl known as Ajrak is used by men and women.


Shalwar kameez

Men and women wear the straight cut Punjabishalwarkameez using local prints and designs.

Sindhi kurta

The Sindhi kurta is the traditional straight cut variety worn in neighbouring Punjab which is becoming increasingly popular in Sindh but uses local patterns to embroider the garment and also makes use of mirrors. The local art of bandhani (creating patterned textiles by resisting parts of a fabric by tying knots on it before it is dyed) is utilised which is believed to have originated in Sindh and spread to Gujarat via Rajasthan and is also practiced in the Punjab region. Sindhi kurtas are also made out of heavy local material called rilli and the kurtas are often called rillikurtas. Ajrak prints are also used.

Sindhi hat with Ajrak designs. Scarf with bandhani prints

Ajrak Print


Rilli material of Sindh

Sindhi Chabba

Sindhi Mojri

Tipno: Sindhi Calender

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Sindhi Wedding Rituals

There are about 4,890,000 Sindhis in India. This Indo Aryan Clan has a significant role in the Culture and Religion of India. They also form a major part of the Indian Business Class. Some of the famous Sindhi Business People are Hinduja Brothers, N. Hirananadani, S. Advani, L.K. Advani and D. Lakhi.

About Sindhis

Sindhis are Indo-Aryan Language speaking Socio Ethnic Group of people originating in Sindh which is a part of Pakistan today. During the partition of India, those Sindhis who were Hindus migrated to India while the Muslim Sindhis remained back in Pakistan. As per the historical pages, the Sindhis belong to the aboriginal tribes of India called the Munda. There is also a close link to the Moen-Jo-Daro and the Sindhi Clan. In Sindhi language, Moen means Dead People; Jo means of and Daro means of Mound. Thus Moen Jo Daro means People of the Mound. It is said that a large proportion of the Sindhi Clan was eradicated with the flood which came in the Moen-Jo-Daro Civilization. Sindhis which came from Sindh are basically the Business Class people of India who are richer than the Average India in every sphere of life.
Sindhi people are basically Sanatani Hindus, who do not follow Hindu rites strictly. However, Sindhi marriage is conducted in accordance with the Vedic rites. Sindhi weddings reflect a blend of Hinduism and Sufism. Usually the weddings take place on the auspicious days like SatyanarayanChandsi or the New Moon day. Like other Hindu marriages,Sindhis also observe a number of pre wedding, wedding and post wedding rituals. Read on to know more about the ceremony.

Pre Wedding Rituals

Kachchi Misri & Pakki Mishri Ceremony is the first ritual conducted before marriage. In Kachchi Misri, a coconut and mishri is given to the bride and the groom, signifying they are one. One week prior to the wedding, the PakkiMishri takes place, wherein the formal engagement takes place and the couple exchanges rings. BeranaSatsang is conducted in the name of Sindhi God Jhulelal. After this, the Mehendi ceremony is held in which the bride's hands and feet are adorned with henna designs. Next is the Santh custom, according to which seven married ladies apply oil on bride's hair.
After this, an earthen pot is placed before her and she is asked to break its cover in one go. The Sangeet party is a dance and music fiesta for women. Then the Saagri tradition is held, which involves the showering of flowers on the bride. The groom's married sisters and cousins visit the bride's place and beautify her with flower jewelry made of Mogra. Subsequently, the Ghari puja takes place at bride's and groom's place. Payers are done and women grind wheat as a symbol of prosperity. A handful of grains are given to the priest by the groom.

Wedding Rituals

Thread ceremony is an important wedding ritual, in which turmeric powder and oil is applied to the bride and the groom. After this, they are not allowed to step out of their homes before marriage. Next is the Swagatam custom, wherein the groom is welcomed to the bride's house by her sisters and friends. At the entrance the groom places his right foot on top of the bride's foot. After this, the bride's parents wash his feet with milk and water.
After this, the Hathialo tradition is held, wherein the groom's shawl is tied to the bride's sari. Their right hands are also tied with red scarf ad they pray to the Almighty to bless their union. Then the main wedding ceremony begins. The couple is seated in front of the sacred fire. While the priest chants mantras, they take four rounds around the fire. Next is the KanyaDaan ceremony, wherein the parents of he bride hand her over to the groom.

Post Wedding Rituals

After the wedding, the bride is welcomed in her new house. Her in-laws wash her feet and cover her head while she sprinkles milk all over the house. After this, the bride takes a handful of salt and gives to the groom. The groom then gives it back to her, without spilling any. This process is repeated thrice. This is known as Datar Ceremony. This is also carried out with other members of the family. Next is Chhanar ritual or DevUthana, in which Devs is removed from the house. Subsequently, Sataurah custom is observed, following which the newly wedded couple visits the bride's house at an auspicious time decided by the priest.

Wedding Rituals at a Glance

Kachi Misri – Vaath jiaaye
Ring Ceremony – Engagement/Pakka
Ganesh Sthaapana/Pooja
Navgraha Brahman/Curry Chawal
Mehendi & Sangeet
Kheeram Sat
Measuring the Groom
Wedding Rituals
Vanva/Munni Kholan
Post-Wedding Rituals
Kheer/Milk Sagun
Salt Shagun
Chand Daman/ Sataurah

Detail Elaboration of Sindhi Marriage Customs/ Rituals

Sindhi weddings are generally a large-scale, razzle-dazzle affair with lots of good food, the best of designer labels, diamonds (gliterrati), bollywood dancing and alcohol. The Sindhi folks enjoy living it up and know how to have a good time. Similar to their Punjabi neighbours (geographically), they are known to be loud and love the good life. The wedding festivities are spread over 3-4 days not including the pre-wedding ceremonies. A whole lot of planning mostly months ahead of D-day goes into making the wedding a landmark one for both the families.

Kachi Misri – Vaathji aaye

This is the first ritual in any Sindhi wedding and is quite similar to the Rokka that the Punjabis have. It is an informal agreement between both the families to conduct the marriage. Generally, a Sindhi Pandit would be requested to conduct the ritual. The groom, the bride and the groom’s sister are asked to be seated together. The groom’s sister puts a red dupatta/chuni covering the bride & herself; applies the tikka on the bride’s forehead and then feeds her some halwa (sweet made from semolina/sooji) and places a coconut and five different fruits (PanjaPhala) in the bride’s lap (Pand). Both the families then pray together to the KuldevtaJhulelal to bless the couple with a blissful marital life.
Depending on the preferences, there could be an elaborate exchange of gifts ranging from jewellery, electronics (laptops, net books), high-end mobile phones & money during this ceremony. The bride’s family presents tokras (cane baskets/hampers) of goodies to the groom’s family. The goodies could be dry fruits, fancy chocolates, cheese etc. A great deal of thought and effort is put into making these beautifully decorated hampers; in fact plenty of families these days prefer to have a specialist manage this for them.
It is generally post this ceremony that the couple is officially permitted to court each other until the big day.

Ring Ceremony – Engagement/Pakka

The wedding festivities are kick started with an exchange of rings. More often than not this is referred to as the Cocktail Party because as the name suggests there is a free flow of alcohol at this ceremony.
This is the party that everybody looks forward to and the dancing goes on until the wee hours of the night. More often than not, the ring ceremony party tends to be theme-based with themes ranging from the popular Bollywood, Retro to as fancy as the Arabian Nights, Moroccon ones. Depending on the theme Entertainment professionals such as a DJ, MC, live bands, dance troupes, Belly dancers and if the budget permits Bollywood stars too would be roped in.
The bride & the groom’s families go all out to put-in their own dance performances, A/V presentations and tear-jerker speeches. Preparations for this party could commence couple of months ahead of the day with professional choreographers/event managers being hired to co-ordinate the effort and make it an evening to remember.


The Janaya or the sacred thread ceremony is performed for boys between the ages of 5-12. The boy is made to wear a yellow thread and a guru mantra generally the Gayatri mantra is whispered into his ears by a priest. It marks the beginning of the adolescent period of a boy’s life. However, more often than not most boys have this done just before the wedding. The groom is showered with gifts of gold and cash from his to be in-laws.

Ganesh Sthaapana/Pooja

This ceremony is done to invoke Lord Ganesha to ensure that the wedding is conducted without any hitches. A priest installs a picture of the family’s KulDevta and a Kalash (arrangement of a coconut, mango leaves & a cocount) to officially mark the beginning of the wedding festivities. A swastik symbol is drawn on the forehead of the Bride and the Groom using wet kum-kum (vermillion powder). GulabJamuns are offered to Lord Ganesha after which the bride and the groom feed the sweet to any young girl (nyaani) from the family generally below the age of 8.

Navgraha Brahman/Curry Chawal

A traditional sindhi meal of curry, rice (chawal), tuk (potato chops), puris/phulkas, subzi (made with potatoes, brinjals& lotus stem), tallebadi (sweet made from gram flour) and sweet boondi is prepared and first offered to 9 brahmins.
Post feeding the Brahmins, the groom’s sister makes the Bride taste three sips of sherbet (sweetened syrup) signifying the ‘Paal Jo Sugun’. She then proceeds to feed her the traditional lunch.
On this occasion, the groom’s side brings plenty of gifts for the bride and her family. Traditionally, the Ganesh Sthaapana, Navgraha Brahman & Curry Chawal rituals were conducted separately for the Bride & the Groom. However, for convenience sake it is clubbed for both the sides and is conducted in the same venue followed by the mehendi & some bollywood dancing.

Mehendi & Sangeet

Although traditionally not part of the rituals, a mehendi and the sangeet party happens post the Curry Chawal. The closest of family and friends are invited to have mehendi designs done accompanied by some desi dancing to burn-off the calories.
Most of these parties could be theme based as well with some interesting return gifts for the women folk. Gifting options range from fancy bangles to dry fruits to silver articles depending on the budget allocated.


The Groom visits the Bride’s place where he is entertained by the brothers and cousins. He receives several gifts from them during this ceremony which could include a new wardrobe or even electronics.

Kheeram Sat

The bride’s sister takes a steel thaali filled with one kg sugar, and decorated with cardamoms, some cloves and one jafar (nutmeg) in the centre. The Brahmin/priest performs a ritual with kachchokheer (raw milk). The priest keeps 1 1/4 or 2 1/2 kg of wheat flour near the deities of Gods, which is for him to take later.
After this, the Ddaajo (bride’s trousseau) is also brought and given to the groom’s family. If budget permits, families also hire personal shopping consultants to help them put together the trousseau.

Measuring the Groom

One more unique feature of the Sindhi weddings is the role of the ‘peearvaari’ (brother’s wife). The boy’s side needs one peearvaari and the girl’s side needs two – one each from her maternal and paternal grandparents’ families for the wedding ceremonies. They perform all the rituals covering their head with a red dupatta and holding the peearji-thaali (plate with pooja items).


On the eve of the wedding, all the relatives put oil on the groom’s head and tear off his clothes. Apparently, this signifies casting away the old life and moving into the new. This is rather a fun ceremony and mostly the groom shows up with at least 3 layers of clothes that are mercilessly torn away by all his cousins and friends.
The girl’s side peearvaari does a few rituals as per the priest’s instructions. This includes combing his hair! The bride’s brothers (along with cousins -minimum four or more) go to the groom’s house. The groom’s family members tie turbans on their heads. The groom’s side gives gifts/clothes and cash to all of them. This is the MANDEERA ceremony.
The ‘bochhini’ (a white big stole like garment stitched with a deep, big pocket at one end) is draped on him. His bhabhi (sister-in-1aw), chachi and maami (aunts) stitch this beforehand and embroider it with seven large sequins. This embroidered part comes over his head. The priest then does a puja and places the ‘mukut’ (a crown-like, white, metal headgear with colourful fixtures) – unique only to Sindhi bridegrooms on his head.
The Ghot a-Ma (groom’s mother) also plays an important role in this ritual. The misri-phala (dry fruits and crystallized sugar along with a set of clothes) are dropped into the ‘pocket’ of his bochhini, first by his sisters, followed bv ‘Naanannas’ (maternal grandparents’ side) and then the others. There are rituals done with the groom’s mother holding a pot on her head and her grandson (daughter’s son doing the ‘’) in tow. The groom is now considered as ‘Vishnu Swaroop’ – form of Lord Vishnu. Post this ritual, he is not allowed to go alone anywhere and is accompanied by the aanar (his sister’s husband). This is followed by a night of celebration and partying by the groom’s side.
All of these ceremonies are usually conducted on the same day, mostly a day before the wedding Wedding Rituals
Morning of the Wedding – Vanva/MunniKholan for the Bride This ceremony is done for the bride on the morning of the wedding, at the wedding venue. ‘SathSuhaginyu’ (seven married women – to rub off their luck on her) join in to help the bride to grind some wheat in the ‘jandd’ a traditional rotating grinder (due to unavailability, a toy one is used) and pound turmeric roots in a ‘hamaamdastha’ (pestle and mortar).
This symbolizes her initiation to household chores. A red thread is tied to one of her ankles and everybody applies oil on her head. A little’Vanva.ji-Bhugeri’ (wheat flour kutti) is made and fed to the bride, the remnants of which (her jhoottha) are fed to eligible girls and boys to eat, since it is believed to increase their chances of quick matrimony. Post the ‘vanva’ ceremony, the bride is not allowed to be alone at all. After her shower, the dress she was wearing for ‘vanva’ is given away in charity. This also symbolizes giving away the old for the new.
The boy’s side sends their car (supposed to be in place of the original ‘ghodi’ – a mare) to the girl’s place on the morning of the wedding. The Bride’s side have it decorated with flowers and send it back. The Bride then dresses up in her bridal attire and goes to the venue of the wedding, without wearing any ornaments.
The girl’s peearvaari goes to the groom’s place and does the suguns/rituals for the Ghot-aMa (boy’s mother) and the grandmothers (both paternal & maternal). She combs their hair and ties a handkerchief around their plaits. Only after she leaves from the Groom’s, can the Baaraat start for the venue. The groom’s Naani (maternal grandmother) gives a saree to him before the groom’s side leaves for the venue.
In the decorated car, the groom is accompanied by the ‘aanar’ (his holding a’kaati’ – small dagger), the’dabli.vaaro’ (another who holds a box containing the bride’s jewelry), the ‘peearvaari’ and his mother. The groom first goes to a temple or ‘Gurudwara’ (durbar) to pray and then proceeds with the ‘baaraat’.


The groom’s entourage of family and friends come to the venue dancing to a live wedding band, in a colourful procession. The bride’s family welcomes them with garlands, a tray of tiny sugar cubes and cardamoms, and a sprinkling of ‘gulabjal’ (rose water) from the metal, sprinkler called ‘Gulabdani’. The bride is brought out to glance at the ‘baaraat’ and the groom and is taken back in almost immediately.


The bride’s mother welcomes the groom at the entrance by doing an aarti. She measures his height with a thread to see how much he has grown in his happiness. She pulls his nose (he prevents her from doing so as it is considered against his ‘shaan’ – below his dignity) and applies ‘surma’ (kohl powder) with a sarai which he tries his utmost to avoid, because of the joke connected to it. ‘Surmopaayann’ metaphorically refers to being duped or cheated. At the most, on being cajoled, he might let her put a dot of surma behind his ear. The bride’s sisters then hide the groom’s footwear and return it only when cajoled and given a lot of money by him. He is made to enter after breaking an earthenware diya with his right foot. The bride’s parents bring a quilt that they cover the bridal aasan (seat) with, two pillows that they keep as backrest for them and a thick bedspread to cover the groom’s parents’ seat.


The aanar enters with the groom and touches a pillar with the tip of his dagger. Then he and the groom’s sister remove the ‘mukut’ from the groom’s head. After entering, the bride’s brother washes the bride’s and groom’s feet with raw milk in a bronze thaali.
Meanwhile, the women of the groom’s family make the bride wear her ornaments. The bride and groom do the ‘loonn-maapann’ josugun. The procedure is as follows: from a thaali filled with salt, one of them fills both palms with maximum possible amount of salt and slowly pass it back and forth between each other, over the thaali, taking care not to drop any of it. This is repeated thrice. This ritual, done with the most basic ingredient is supposed to improve their ‘laanna-dyanni’ (give and take relationship – how much one owes to and begets from each other karmically and materialistically). This is considered as the basis of all relationships.


The bride’s pallu and the edge of the groom’s bochhini are tied together twice in tight knots by the groom’s sister with a few grains of raw rice concealed in the knots. If possible, these knots are to be retained for as long as possible – at least for the two more occasions it will be used – ‘Tel’ (during the 7th/9th month of a woman’s pregnancy) and for ‘Grihapravesh’ puja (house warming).


The threads around the bride’ and groom’s ankles are removed. The bride’s parents give the groom’s father ‘ambar’ (a safari or a suit length) and money in a silver bowl. The couple’s right palms are joined with a little atta (wheat flour dough) with a coin placed in between and tied together with a red string. In the ‘Veddi’ (mandap of marriage), worship of main God/Goddess i.e. Ganapati, Navagrahas, Kalash (Rudra), Omkar, Vishnu, Lakshmi, etc. are done to invoke their blessings. Then the havan (sacred fire) is worshipped. The bride’s and groom’s heads and faces are covered with a white cloth and their heads are brought close together, during the nuptial ceremony. This is to symbolize the discretion they should learn to adopt during personal discords. The bride’s brother, maternal and paternal uncles (in that order) are asked be witnesses of the marriage, to offer aahutis (offerings) in the sacred fire and bless the newly married couple.

Pheras (Circle Around the Sacred Fire)

The bride and the groom go around the sacred fire four times (unlike seven in a typical Hindu wedding). The bride leads the first three rounds and the groom leads the fourth. Each of these pheras signifies fulfiling the needs of ‘Dharma’ – social responsibility and duty, ‘Arth’ – economic responsibilities, ‘Kaama’ – the physical needs and ‘Moksha’- the ultimate liberation.


The seven sacred vows of a Hindu marriage are explained to the couple by the priest. They in turn understand and exchange these vows. The bride’s side of the family distributes handkerchiefs to members of the groom’s family. The priest calls the bride’s sister to the groom and throws bits of cotton in front of him, which she has to pick up very fast. Previously, instead of cotton, the bride’s sister had to quickly pick up cardamoms that were bitten and spat out of the groom’s mouth.


‘Kanyadaan’ literally means giving away the daughter to the new groom. The bride’s parents have to fast until the Kanyadaan is complete. Placing their daughter’s hand in the groom’s, they hope that he will honour and prorect her dignity. Since a daughter is looked upon as Lakshmi – the Goddess of fortune, her parents consider their son,in-law as Vishnu, Lakshmi’s consort. The groom then raises her hand to his forehead and declares her as his ‘Ardhaangini’ or better half in the presence of the deities the priest and all those present. Then he raises his new bride’s hand thrice, acknowledging acceptance.
The groom then fills the parting in her hair with Sindhur and makes her wear the ‘Mangalsutra’ (a blackbeaded gold chain worn by married women).


Jaymala is the exchanging of Garlands between the bride and the groom. The bride’s parents offer sweets to everyone and give gifts to the aanar, dablivaaro and peearvaari. The priest matches and calculates their ‘laanna-dyanni’ (based on the belief that all relationships depend on how much one owes to the other karmically) and then announces the alphabet with which the bride’s new name should start with. This new name is then chosen by the in-laws and announced. This practice is unique to the Sindhi community and it is believed to improve the couple’s compatibility.


The bride’s family bids her goodbye and see-off the newly married couple. The father of the bride generally gives gifts to the bride. Both the newlyweds then leave for the groom’s house where they are welcomed by the new family with a lot of fanfare and dancing. Post-Wedding Rituals

Kheer Sagun – Entering the new home

When the new bride is taken to her in-laws house for the first time, she is made to unlock the door. Before entering her new home, the bride first steps into a thali of water with her right foot symbolizing her purity before stepping into the house. When entering the house, a lid is put over her head while she sprinkles water and milk around the house. The lid symbolizes that bride will respect her new family and keep its affairs and shortcomings within the confines of her home and not share them with the outside world. They make her sprinkle raw milk from the boy’s peearvaari thaali all over the house. Some people even have this ritual of putting a gold coin in the ‘haandi’ (big vessel) and asking the new bride to find it. She then lights a diya in the puja room.

Salt Shagun

The bride then does the Loonn Maapann (salt) ceremony with each of the relatives of the groom, starting with the groom’s mother, followed by his immediate and then the extended family, to establish good relations with them. This symbolizes her first entry as an official member of the family.


Most of the time there is a reception hosted after the main wedding ceremony to facilitate meeting, greeting and blessing the couple by all those invited.
This could again be a theme-based event with the decor, lighting and arrangements in the same colour scheme.

Chand Daman/ Sataurah

The next day, the bride’s family mainly siblings and other youngsters, come to visit her. They invite the bride’s in-laws to come for the next ceremony that evening. They also take some eatables/lunch for them.
A ceremony where the groom, his aanar, dabli-vaaro and peearvaari along with a few children go to the bride’s parents’ house for dinner. Just before she leaves, the bride lights a lamp near a tap or well – for JhooleLal.

Chhathi Ceremony (Birth Ceremony)

This ceremony is performed when the baby is six days old. This ceremony is primarily for the new born and is timed to take place late at night, say between ten o'clock and midnight.
According to folklore, there was a belief that on the 6th day after the birth of the child, Vidhaata (Goddess of destiny) would quietly enter the house around midnight to pen the destiny of the newborn. Traditionally the mother of the newborn lights a lamp (diya). This lamp along with a red pen and paper are placed on a wooden plank for Vidhaata to write the future of the newborn.
The mother, while holding the newborn in her arms, kneels before the lamp, which is supposed to symbolize Vidhaata.

Sindhi Music

Music from Sindh province is sung in Sindhi, and is generally performed in either the "Baits" or "Waee" styles. The Baits style is vocal music in Sanhoon (low voice) or Graham (high voice). Waee instrumental music is performed in a variety of ways using a string instrument. Waee, also known as Kafi, is found in the surrounding areas of Balochistan, Punjab, and Kutch.

Sindhi Sufi Music

Shah Jo Raag The traditional compilations of Shah Jo Risalo by Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai include 30 Surs (chapters) which are sung as raags. The oldest publications of Shah Jo Risalo contained some 36 Surs, but later most of the linguists discarded 6 Surs, as their language and content did not match with the Shah's style. Recently, Dr. Nabi Bakhsh Baloch, the most renowned linguist of Sindhi language has compiled and printed a new edition after 32 years of research in folk culture, language and history of Sindhi language. Renowned singer Abida Parveen has recorded all of Shah's sur in her 11 volume CD Shah jo Risalo released in December 2013.

The traditional 30 Surs included in Shah Jo Risalo are:

• Bilawal
• Kalyaan
• Yaman Kalyaan
• Khanbhaat
• SuriRaag
• Samundi
• Sohni
• Sasui Aburi
• Maazuri
• Desi
• Kohyari
• Husaini
• Laila Chanesar
• Mumal Ranu
• Marvi
• Kaamod
• Ghatu
• Sorath
• Kedaro
• Sarang
• Asaa
• Ripp
• Khahori
• Barwo Sindhi
• Ramkali
• Kapa'iti
• Purab
• Karayal
• Pirbhati
• Dahar

Instruments used in Sindhi Music

• Ektara known as Yaktaro in Sindhi
• Tanpura known as Danburo in Sindhi
• Alghoza Flute
• Bansuri
• Pungi known as Been in Sindhi
• Narr
• Naghara
• Dhol
• borrindo

Famous Sindhi musicians

• Abida Parveen
• Ustad Muhammad Juman
• Ustad Manzoor Ali Khan
• Ustad Mohammad Ibrahim
• Ustad Muhammad Yousuf
• Zarina Baloch
• Shaman Ali Meerali
• Mai Bhaghi
• Allan Faqir
• Sohrab Fakir
• Sarmad Sindhi
• Sanam Marvi
• Humera Channa
• Saif Samejo
• Ustad Waheed Ali

Famous Sindhi songs

Sindhi songs are so melodous and very famous in the Sindh. The famous songs included are, Sindh Muhinje Amma, Parchan Shaal Panvar Dhola, Peirein Pawandee Saan.

Sindhi songs

Sindhi songs from the Sindh include many different varieties. Sindhi music is generally performed in either the “Baits” or “Waee” styles. The Baits style is vocal music in Sanhoon, low voice, or Graham, high voice. Waee music is instrumental, performed in a variety of ways using a string instrument. Waee is commonly known as Kafi and also is found in the surrounding areas of Baluchistan, Punjab and Rajasthan. Common instruments used in Sindhi regional music include the yaktaro, narr and naghara.

List of Sindhi singers

Sindhi music is popular in Pakistan and some parts of India. There have been several world famous Sindhi singers who have performed within and without Sindh. This is a list of notable Sindhi singers.


• Abida Parveen
• Allan Fakir
• Arshad Mehmood


• Bhagat Kanwar Ram


• Imran Channa


• Manzoor Sakhirani


• Runa Laila


• Sarmad Sindhi
• Saif Samejo, The Sketches
• Sanam Marvi
• Shazia Khushk
• Sohrab Fakir


• Ustad Muhammad Juman


• Zarina Baloch

Sindhi Dance

Every Sindhi likes HOJAMALO. The song, which pertains to the BAHRANO, is a very famous song of JHULE, JHULE, JHULE-JHULELAL. It is only a Sindhi who can interpret the spirit of these songs, though any one who listens to them will, almost without exception, be carried by its rhythmic beat like no other rhythmic beat in the world.

Like the Folk songs, the folk dances are equally rhythmic and equally enchanting. These may be rugged and simple in their rhythmic beats. But they are full of life and vitality. There is a dance JHUMIR that is a counter-part of the dance of Laada in songs.


What exactly does the word folk lore connotes? In its simplest manifestation it symbolises the culture of the unsophisticated, the expression, mostly in song and dance, of the customs, tradition manners, aspiration, almost the entire social and religious life of the people at all levels of the common man.
There is no country in the world, which has not been enriched by folklore, for folk-lore, despite the fact that it has not been looked upon as the intelligent endeavour of the literate, is in the point of fact, the very pulse-beat of the national conscience manifesting itself in song, dance, riddle, proverb and even in superstition. Every Sindhi likes HOJAMALO. The song, which pertains to the BAHRANO, is a very famous song of JHULE, JHULE, JHULE-JHULELAL. It is only a Sindhi who can interpret the spirit of these songs, though any one who listens to them will, almost without exception, be carried by its rhythmic beat like no other rhythmic beat in the world. Like the Folk songs, the folk dances are equally rhythmic and equally enchanting. These may be rugged and simple in their rhythmic beats. But they are full of life and vitality. There is a dance JHUMIR that is a counter-part of the dance of Laada in songs.


Chhej is performed only by men. It is some what similar to DoklaRas of Kathiawar, but considerably more intricate in pattern & steps and rhytmic beats. The instruments used are the SHARNAI and the DUDUL i.e. Shehnai and the drum. Another dance which is performed only by men is DHAMAL, performed by Fakirs and disciples of a particular shrine at the time when the flag of the shrine goes up. This is a dance which is characterised by a sort of religious frenzy and has, therefore, a very fast tempo. Nagharo (a big drum) instrument provides both the rhythmic beat and the tempo for the Dhamal.
There are many other dances, though the BHTAGA may be called the King-pin of them all. This is properly speaking a dance-drama enacted with the aid of song, Kalams etc.


LaddaSongs which are sung before the actual weddings, the very lilt of which suggests careless abandon and gaiety that mark a wedding. Sindhis are very famous for showmanship, and on the occasion of the marriage of the son, they will not hesitate to spend thousands of rupees only on decorations, music dance and photographs, movie and on video shootings, They call a Laada party of famous singers and enjoy the music one day before the marriage and even on Janiya (Thread ceremony) etc. The famous Laado SONU BAJUBAND, LADO PANHIJEE KUNWAR LAI AANEDO AND DHIKH JE RAAT LADE MUNDIYOON GHARAYOON, MOOML MANA NA KAR MARUN SA, ALLA SON JO RUPAYAetc. Many other Laddas are so famous among the Sindhis that on the occasion of the marriage, specially ladies and relatives are invited on Laada ceremony where they offer the GHORof rupees on the bride-groom whose marriage is to be performed. There are many folk songs, and many dances are composed. We cannot ignore our humorous songs. To get back however to Sindhi song, which does not treat only of love, there are some double meaning FOHIRAS too.


Bhagat is an original and pure art form of Sindhi music and dance. This is one art form which can be truly called as Sindhi folk and meant for the masses. The mere announcement of a bhagat performance brought people from near and far off place. This song-n-dance extravaganza called for expertise in both forms namely singing and dancing. One without the other was no good. Mikes and sophisticated sound systems being not-existent in those days, it is rumoured that the bhagats of yesteryears could give many a Michael Jackson of Elton John a run for their money for not only was their singing soulful but it was loud and clear enough for a person sitting a quarter of a kilometre away from the singer.
The performances were usually held in the nights and lasted till the wee hours of the morning. Requiring a minimum of two or more performers from a band of six, this folk form was highly interactive and weaved in out from pure folk and devotional songs to narratives to stories thus giving wholesome entertainment rather infotainment to the crowds. Two-three of them are usually good singers with one being the lead singer and the other two known as peechhads or boliaraas (back-up singers). The lead singer or bhagat wore a chher, jamo, pagdi and kundal with a bright tilak on the forehead and sung in a style little bit similar to those of qawals. The crowd used to sit on two sides much akin to a fashion show with a ramp running into the audience. The bhagats used to sing and move back and forth in the crowd in the centre aisle. The back up singers usually stood in the back and faced the bhagat who would start of on a line with the back up singers interjecting with a simile or the latter half of a couplet.

Bhagat Kanwarram

Among bhagats, Sant Kanwarram was one of the most legendary performer who went on to become s saint for Sindhis. His soulful voice once brought back a dead child to life, a miracle many have seen with their own eyes. Especially known for his rendition of the Sur Prabhati (which is sung early in the morning), Sant Kanwarram was popular not only amongst the Sindhi Hindus but Muslims also. Besides Bhagat Kanwarram there were others who had carved out a niche for themselves. Notably amongst them were Bhagat Naru, Bhagat Jadaram, Bhagat Leelo (Adh Kanwar), Bhagat Tharu, Bhagat Parso, Bhagat Motan, Bhagat Sobho, Bhagat Dharmu, Bhagat Dilo, Bhagat Shewo, Bhagat Dwaru, Bhagat Ghansho and Bhagat Khanuram. The back up singers sometimes dressed up as female characters also and they were most known by their nicknames. Notable amongst them were 'Shaman Guddi', 'Lal Chhuri' and 'Jal phatako'. The bhagats were in great demand usually at melas, annual darbar and dargah functions and sometimes for marriages also.

Notable Sindhi Personalities Worldwide


1 Historical Personalities
2 Politics
3 Journalists
  3.1 Print
  3.2 Electronic
4 Artists and Painters
  4.1 Singers
5 Poets
6 Science and Technology
7 Educationalists
8 Entertainment Industry
9 Scholars
10 Researchers
11 Writers
12 Short Story Writers
13 Business and Industry
14 Philanthropists and Social Activists
15 Economics
16 Law and Judiciary
17 Metaphysics, Spirituality and Religion
18 Saints and Sufis
19 Sports
20 Medicine
21 Others

1. Historical Personalities

Hemu Kalani
• Hemu Kalani, freedom fighter
• Hazrat Khawaja Muhammad Zaman of Luari Sharif
• Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai
• Sayyid Muhammad Al-Makki
• Shah Inayat Shaheed
• Lal Shahbaz Qalander
• Sachal Sarmast
• Dodo Bin Khafef Soomro III
• Jam Nizamuddin II
• Jam Feroz
• Jam Unar • Jam Tamachi
• Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak
• Mir Ahmed Nasrallah Thattvi
• Mir Ali Sir Thattvi
• Mirza Ghazi Beg
• Muhammad Salih Tahtawi
• Mian Adam Shah Kalhoro, Amir
• Main Noor Mohammad Kalhoro, ruler of Sindh
• Muhammad Muradyab Khan (Nawab Sarbuland Khan), ruler of Sindh
• Mian Ghuam Shah Kalhoro (Shah Wardi Khan), ruler of Sindh
• Mir Nasir Khan Talpur
• Mir Sher Muhammad Talpur
• Gernal Hosh Mohammad Sheedi
• Mir Ali Murad Talpur
• Mir Allahyar Talpur
• Hoshu Sheedi
• Sibghatullah Shah Rashidi
• Ubaidullah Sindhi
• Ghulam Mustafa Khan
• Sardar Darya Khan
• Raja Dahir
• Sinbad the Sailor, mythical figure who may have originated in Sindh
• Hakeem Muhammad Amin Soomro, Royal Hakeem of Princely State of Khairpur, Sindh, Muslim politician and freedom fighter, student of Hakeem APMal Khan
• Raees Ghulam Muhammad Khan Bhurgri

2. Politics

Lal Krishna Adwani
• Syed Shah Mardan Shah-II
• Rasool Bux Palijo
• G.M Syed
• Lal Krishna Advani, leader of BJP and former Deputy Prime Minister and Home Minister of India
• Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
• Benazir Bhutto
• Ayaz Latif Palijo
• Bashir Qureshi
• Mohammad Khan Junejo
• Sir Shah Nawaz Bhutto
• Ghulam Hussain Hidayatullah
• Asif Zardari
• Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi
• Mumtaz Ali Bhutto
• Mir Bandeh Ali Khan Talpur, former Chief Minister of Sindh
• Haider Bux Jatoi, founder of 'Jeay Sindh' slogan
• Elahi Bux Soomro, former Parliamentary Speaker
• Yusuf Haroon
• Murtaza Bhutto
• Haji Amir Bux Junejo
• Muhammad Mian Soomro
• Fatima Bhutto, author
• Sucheta Kriplani, first Sindhi Indian woman Chief Minister
• K. R. Malkani
• Mir Ghalib Hussain Domki
• Allah Bux Soomro, first Prime Minister of Sindh
• Syed Zafar Ali Shah, former Deputy Speaker Of Pakistan.
• Dada Ram Jethmalani Former Union Law Minsiter of India and present Member of Parliament ( Rajya Sabha) (BJP) from Rajasthan
• Prof. Vasudev Devnani, State Education Minister, Rajasthan

3. Journalists

3.1. Print
Sandee Harilela
• Amar Jaleel
• Aijaz Ahmad Mangi
• Sandee Harilela (Managing Editor, Bharat Ratna Magzine)

3.2. Electronic
Rajesh Mirchandani
• Ali Kazi
• Rajesh Mirchandani

4. Artists and Painters

Imran Channa
• Imran Channa
• Hussain Chandio

4.1. Singers

Abida Parveen
• Suhrab Faqir
• Saif Samejo
• Allan Fakir
• Muhammad Juman
• Ustad Manzoor Ali Khan
• Arshad Mehmood
• Bhagat Kanwar Ram
• Imran Channa
• Manzoor Sakhirani
• Runa Laila
• Sarmad Sindhi
• Sanam Marvi
• Shazia Khushk
• Zarina Baloch
• Bhagwanti Nawani

5. Poets

Anwar Pirzada

• Talib-ul-Mola
• Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai
• Sachal Sarmast
• Anwar Pirzada, Sindhi poet, journalist
• Shaikh Ayaz, Sindhi/Urdu poet, scholar
• Qadir Bux Bedil
• Imdad Hussaini
• Elsa Kazi
• Pir Sadardin
• Tajal Bewas
• Minyoon Shah Inat
• Shah Abdul Karim Bulri
• Shah Inayatullah
• Minyoon Shah Inat
• Sami
• Rohal Faqir
• Bedil
• Muhammad Mohsin Bekas
• Darya Khan Rind
• Sikandar Khan Khoso
• Sawan Fakir
• Adal Soomro
• Allah Baksh Sarshar Uqaili
• Anwar Peerzada
• Shah Inayat Rizvi
• Elsa Kazi
• Ghulam Ali Allana
• Syed Ahmed Bukhari, known by his pen name "Ustad Bukhari"
• Naseer Soomro
• Anju Makhija

6. Science and Technology

Sind ibn Ali

• Sind ibn Ali, Sindhi Muslim astronomer, translator, mathematician and engineer
• Ahmed Mohiuddin
• Gul Agha, computer scientist
• Pervez Hoodbhoy
• Raziuddin Siddiqui
• Abdul-Majid Bhurgri, founder of computing in Sindhi
• Rajeev Motwani, co-author of PageRank

7. Educationalists

Anita Ghulam Ali

Dr. Indu Shahani

• Anita Ghulam Ali
• Hassan Ali Effendi
• Allama I. I. Kazi
• Ghulam Mustafa Khan
• Hassanally A. Rahman
• Nabi Bux Khan Baloch
• Haji Mehar Ali Khoja
• Khan Bahadur Ghulam Nabi Kazi, first DPI Sindh 1936-39
• Abul Khair Kashfi
• Abul Lais Siddiqui
• Aslam Farrukhi
• Farman Fatehpuri
• Ghulam Mustafa Khan
• Jameel Jalibi
• Khalida Ghous
• Moonis Ahmar
• Naseem Amrohvi
• Talat A. Wizarat
• Muhammad Ibrahim Joyo
• Umar Bin Muhammad Daudpota
• Ali Ahmed S Kazi
• Mushtak Ali Kazi
• Mutawakkil Kazi, Judge of the High Court of Sindh
• Aftab Ghulam Nabi Kazi, 8th Governor of the State Bank of Pakistan
• Khan Bahadur Ghulam Nabi Kazi
• Ahmed Hussain A. Kazi
• \Noor Muhammad Lakhir, Founder of Noor Muhammad High School Hyderabad Sindh
• Dr Indu Shahani (Principal, HR College of Commerce and Economics, Mumbai)

8. Entertainment Industry

Kittu Gidwani

Arjun Bijlani


• Abida Parveen, Pakistani Sufi singer
• Aftab Shivdasani
• Aftab Shivdasani, Indian actor
• Anand L. Rai, Indian film director and producer
• Arjun Bijlani, television actor
• Arjun Bijlani. Television Actor
• Asrani, Indian comedian and cctor
• Babita, Indian actress and mother of Kareena and Karisma • Dalip Tahil, Indian actor
• Fahad Mustafa, Pakistani actor, producer, host, anchor and model
• G P Sippy, Indian filmmaker
• Govind Nihalani, director of serious and art films
• Hansika motwani
• Hansika Motwani, Indian actress
• Hari Shivdasani, Indian actor and father of Babita
• Hiten Tejwani, television actor
• Jackky bhagnani
• Karuna Samtani. Film Producer
• Kitu Gidwani. Television Actress
• Muhammad Juman, Sindhi musician and classical singer
• Mustafa Qureshi, film and television actor from Sindh, Pakistan
• Nikhil Advani, Indian director and screenwriter
• Rajkumar Hirani, Indian movie director
• Ramesh Sippy, Indian director, son of G P Sippy
• Ramsay Brothers, horror filmmakers from India
• Ranveer Singh (Bhwnani), Indian actor
• Ritesh Sidhwani, Indian movie producer
• Rithvik Dhanjani, television actor
• Sadhna, Indian Actress and cousin of Babita
• Sanam Baloch, Pakistani actress and a television host
• Sangeeta Bijlani, Indian Actress
• Shafi Muhammad Shah, Pakistani film and television actor
• Shekhar Ravjiani. Singer & Music Director
• Tamannaah, Indian actress
• Tarun Mansukhani, Indian movie director
• Vashu Bhagnani, Indian filmmaker
• Vishal dadhlani. Singer & Music Director
• Vishal Dadlani, Indian music director
• Zarina Baloch, Pakistani folk music singer and composer

9. Scholars

Mirza Qalich Baig

• Ali Muhammad Rashidi
• Allama I. I. Kazi
• Allama Makhdoom Muhammad Hashim Thattvi
• Elsa Kazi
• Ghulam Ali Allana
• Ghulam Mustafa Khan, scholar of Islam and the Quran, linguist, professor of Urdu
• Hassam-ud-Din Rashidi
• M. H. Panhwar
• Mangharam Udharam Malkani,
• Maulana Ubaidullah Sindhi
• Mirza Qalich Baig
• Muhammad Ibrahim Joyo
• Nabi Bux Khan Baloch
• Umar Bin Muhammad Daudpota

10. Researchers

Muhammad Yar Khuhawar

• Ghulam Mustafa Khan, researcher, linguist, poet, author, scholar
• Muhammad Yar Khuhawar
• Fahmida Hussain
• Anwar Peerzada

11. Writers

Muhammad Yar Khuhawar

• Muhammad Ibrahim Joyo
• Imdad Ali Imam Ali Kazi
• Mirza Kalich Beg
• Ghulam Nabi, "Gul" Wajahat Publication Larkana
• Nabi Bux Khan Baloch
• Shaikh Ayaz
• Sobho Gianchandani, writer
• Jamal Abro, Sindhi novelist
• Fehmida Riaz, writer, poet, activist
• Ghulam Mustafa Khan, writer, critic, linguist, researcher, scholar
• Muzaffar Warsi, poet
• Zamir Ali Badayuni, critic
• Altaf Shaikh
• Naseem Kharal
• Mir Muhammad Soomro, religious scholar, historian, biographer, poet
• Faqeer Muhammad Soomro, writer, researcher and columnist, writer of Soomran Jo Shujro
• Altaf Malkani
• Aziz Kingrani

12. Short Story Writers

Jamal Abro

• Jamal Abro
• Mazhar Abro
• Amar Jaleel
• Naseem Kharal

13. Business and Industry

Sabir Bhatia

Micky Jagtiani

• Sabir Bhatia, Indian entrepreneur and founder of Hotmail
• Yusuf Haroon
• Mahmoud Haroon
• Agha Hasan Abedi, banker
• Micky Jagtiani, Chairman (Landmark Group)
• Arjan Lulla (Eros International)
• Kumar and Ranmesh Tauran (Tips Industries Limited)
• Hari Harilela
• Rajan Raheja
• Sunil JethwaniFounder at
• Chanda Kocher MD & CEO, ICICI Bank

14. Philanthropists and Social Activists

Ansar Burney

• Hussain Haroon
• Jam Saqi
• Fahmida Riaz
• Ansar Burney

15. Economics

Dr. Shamshad Akhtar

• Dr. Shamshad Akhtar
• Hameed Haroon
• Abdul Hafeez Shaikh, Finance Minister of Pakistan
• Naveed Qamar, Finance Minister of Pakistan
• Akhtar Hameed Khan, pioneer of microcredit and microfinance in Pakistan, founder of Orangi Pilot Project

16. Law and Judiciary

Ram Jethmalani

• Ram Jethmalani, former Law Minister of India
• Mahesh Jethmalani
• Jan Muhammad Junejo
• Rana Bhagwandas
• Sajjad Ali Shah
• Rasul Bux Palejo
• Abdul Hafiz Pirzada
• A K Brohi
• Tufail Ali Abdul Rehman
• Agha Rafiq Ahmed Khan
• Hassanally A. Rahman
• Rani Jethmalani
• Faqir Muhammad Khokhar
• Muhammad Nawaz Abbasi
• Abdul Ghafoor Bhurgri

17. Metaphysics, Spirituality and Religion

Dada J.P. Vaswani

• Ghulam Mustafa Khan, head of Naqashbandi Sufi Order, scholar, writer, poet
• Abu Mashar Sindhi (786 AD), teacher of Arab scholars
• Abu Raja Sindhi (d. 321 A.H.), scholar, poet, teacher
• Abul Hassan Sindhi (d. 1176 AH), made the first translation of Qur'an from Arabic to Sindhi
• Allama Makhdoom Muhammad Hashim Thattvi (died 1174 AH), Ahl-us-Sunnah scholar
• Maulana Taj Mohammad Amrothi (d. 1929), freedom fighter from Sukkur, Sindh
• Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak, vizier of the Mughal emperor Akbar and author of the Akbarnama
• Mir Ahmed Nasrallah Thattvi, Muslim scholar at the court of Mughal EmperorAkbar
• Mir Ali Sir Thattvi, Sindhi Muslim historian born after the rule of Mughal EmperorAurangzeb
• Tahir Muhammad Thattvi, Sindhi Muslim poet and historian during the rule of the Mughal Empire
• Abu'l-Qásim Faizi, Persian poet of late medieval India • Allama Muhammad Idrees Dahiri, Islamic scholar, preacher, writer, author, poet and researcher
• Hafiz Muhammad Siddique, scholar from Sindh and founder of school of thought in Bharchundi
• Ubaidullah Sindhi, pan-Islamic leader and a political activist
• Mohammad Hayya Al-Sindhi, prominent Muslim scholar in Medina in the 18th century
• Raees-Ul-Muhajireen Barrister Jan Muhammad Junejo, a leader of the Khilafat Movement
• Badi' ud-Din Shah al-Rashidi
• Hazrat Khwaja Muhammad Tahir
• Allama Ali Khan Abro
• Maulana deen Muhammad Wafai
• Moulana Jan Mohammad Abbasi
• Makhdoom Bilawal
• Asadullah Bhutto
• Sibghatullah Shah Rashidi, spiritual leader of the Hurs
• Syed Shah Mardan Shah-II, spiritual leader of Hurs
• Sadhu T. L. Vaswani
• Dada Vaswani

18. Saints and Sufis

Khwaja Muhammad Tahir Bakhshi

• Lal Shahbaz Qalander
• Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai
• Abdullah Shah Ghazi
• Sachal Sarmast
• Mian Adam Shah Kalhoro
• Allama Makhdoom Muhammad Hashim Thattvi
• Abdul Raheem Garhori
• Khwaja Muhammad Tahir Bakhshi, alias Sajjan Saeen
• Ghulam Mustafa Khan

19. Sports

Pankaj Advani

• Syed Hussain Shah, boxer who won the bronze medal for boxing at the 1988 Summer Olympics
• Pankaj Advani, world champion in Snooker and Billiards from India
• Abdul Rashid Qambrani, boxer
• Narendra Hirwani, cricketer from India
• Sarfraz Ahmed Memon, Pakistani cricketer
• Sarmad Bhatti, [pakistani Cricketer Represent U19 Team (2009/2010) From Khairpur]

20. Medicine

Dr. Indira Hinduja

• Mir Masoom Bakhree
• Abdul Hai Arifi, Doctor of Homeopathic Medicine
• Ghulam Nabi Kazi, National Officer for Program Development at the World Health Organization
• Dr. Indira Hinduja (Gynaecologist)

21. Others

Tarun Tahiliani

Neeta Lulla

• Tarun Tahiliani, Indian fashion designer
• Dabboo Ratnani Photographer
• Neeta lulla. Indian fashion designer
• Ms. Camilla Punjabi. Interior Designer, Architecture, Food and beverages
• Annie Rupani, entrepreneur and beauty pageant
• Zehra Sheerazi, beauty pageant



Here is a list of sindhi personalities honored with Padma Award given by Government of India to civil citizens for outstanding achievement in their respective field. Till date [2016] no Sindhi has received the highest civilian award Bharat Ratana but quite few Sindhi are recipient of Padma Vibhushan, Padma Bhushan and PadamShri Award.

(1).Padma Vibhushan L K Advani

(BJP's Iron Man - Lal Krishan Advani)

(2).PadamBhushan Dr. L H Hiranandani

(Dr. Lekhumal Hiranandani: Famous Sindhi E N T Surgeon)

(3).Padma Bhushan Dr. Suresh Advani

(Famous Sindhi Oncologist – Pioneer of Hematopoietic stems cell transplantation in India)

(4). Padma Bhushan Krishna Kripalani

(Famous Sindhi Freedom Fighter –Anthropologist)

(5).Padma Bhushan N R Malkani

(Sindhi Freedom Fighter – Educationist – Social Worker –Author

(6).Padma ShriHundraj Dukhayal

(National kavi who has given Sindhi literature and Sindhi Poetry a new meaning) 

(7).Padma Shri Dr. G S Sainani

(A Medical researcher and General Practitioner, Cardiologist Honorary Brigadier– Medical Book Author)

(8).Padma Shri Dr. Indira Hinduja

(One of the leading Gynecologist and Obstetrician of the country. “Human in Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer”)

(9).Padma Shri Dr. Motilal Jotwani

(Famous Sindhi Writer – Educationist – Gandhian – Fellow of Harvard Divinity School and Known for specialized in Sindhi language and literature)

(10).Padma ShriGovindNihalani

(Famous Sindhi - Cinematographer Director

(11).Padma ShriPankajAdvani

(Billiards & Snooker Champion: Teen Age Sindhi, World Champion)

(12).Padma Shri Prof. Ram Panjwani

(Famous Sindhi Writer-Poet-Folk Singer- Educationist)

(13).Padma Shri Ramesh Sippy

(Sindhi Film Director- Ramesh Gopaldas Sipahmalani – Sholay Fame)





After the partition, in multilingual country India, this was a long struggle to get recognition for Sindhi language as here Sindhis were fighting for resettlement of life and that too in isolated and dispersed population. Thanks to efforts taken by Sindhi SahityaMandal one of the pioneer literary body of Sindhis in India, Sindhi language was taken in consideration as the recognized language for the program on All India Radio & Sindhi literature for the Sahitya Academy Award highest literary award of the country in the year 1957. This might be noted that Sindhi language was included to eight schedule of Indian constitution on 10 August 1967 as the fifteenth language. 

TirthBasant was the first to receive this award only in 1959 for the biography of BhagatKanwarram another significant thing about this award is that between 1960 - 1963 and in the years 1965, 1967, 1975, 1977 and 1992 no one was honored with this prestigious award.
















Year wise list of Academy Award Winners with recipient's name and publication title is given as follows:

(1) 1959 :: TirthBasant :: Kanwa
(2) 1964 :: Prof. Ram Panjwani :: AnokhaAzmooda
(3) 1966 :: LekhrajKishinchand Aziz :: Surah
(4) 1968 :: KalyanAdvani :: Shah Jo Rasalo (evolution)
(5) 1969 :: M.U. Malkani :: Sindhi Nasr JiTarikh
(6) 1970 :: Narayan `Shyam :: Wari-a-BharyoPalaand
(7) 1971 :: KishinRahi :: Kumach
(8) 1972 :: GunoSamtaney :: Aparajita
(9) 1973 :: GobindMalhi :: PyarJiPyas
(10) 1974 :: LalPushp :: HunajeAtam Jo Maut
(12) 1976 :: Laxman Bhatia "Komal" :: Jee-a-Jharoko
(13) 1978 :: H.I. Sadarangani :: Cheekh
(14) 1979 :: HariDaryani "Dilgir" :: Pal Pal Jo Parlao
(15) 1980 :: KrishinKatwani :: YadHikPyarJi
(16) 1981 :: Prabhu "Wafa" :: SurkhGulaab-SurahaKhawaab
(17) 1982 :: Popati R. Hiranandani :: MunhinjiHayati-a-jaSonaRopaWarq
(18) 1983 :: ArjanMirchandani "Shad" :: AndhoDoonhon
(19) 1984 :: Mohan Kalpana :: UhaShaam
(20) 1985 :: Arjan "Hasid" :: MeroSij
(21) 1986 :: Sundri A. Uttamchandani :: Vichoro
(22) 1987 :: Harish Vaswani :: Chaliha-Chorasi
(23) 1988 :: MotiPrakash :: Se Sab SandhyamSaahSen
(24) 1989 :: M. Kamal :: BahiJaWarisa
(25) 1990 :: GoverdhanMahboobani :: Shishe-Ja-Ghar
(26) 1991 :: HarikantJethwani :: SochJoonSurtoon
(27) 1993 :: Tara Mirchandani : Hathayogi
(28) 1994 :: Kala Prakash :: Aarsi-A-Aado
(29) 1995 :: HariMotwani :: Ajho
(30) 1996 :: LakhmiKhilani :: Gufa Je Hun Paar
(31) 1997 :: IshwarAnchal :: TaandaanaaAndheriRaat Mein
(32) 1998 :: ShyamJaisinghani :: Zalzalo
(33) 1999 :: VasdevMohi :: Barf Jo Thahiyal
(34) 2000 :: Param A. Abichandani :: Taka Tora
(35) 2001 :: PremPrakash :: Bhagat
(36) 2002 :: HariHimthani :: UdamandarhArman
(37) 2003 :: Hiro Thakur :: TahqiqAinTanqeed
(38) 2004 :: SatishRohra :: Kavita Khan KavitaTain
(39) 2005 :: Dholan "Rahi" :: AndheroRoshanThiye
(40) 2006 :: KiratBabani :: Dharti - A-Jo-Sad
(41) 2007 :: Vasedev "Nirmal" :: VijoonVasanAayoon
(42) 2008 :: HiroShewkani :: Sirjan Jo SankatAin Sindhi
(43) 2009 :: AnandKhemani :: RishtanJeeSiyasat
(44) 2010 :: LaxmanDube :: AjanYaadAahe
(45) 2011 :: Mohan Gehani :: Ta Khawaban Jo ChhaThindo
(46) 2012 :: Indira Vaswani :: MiteeaKhaanMiteeaTaaeen
(47) 2013 :: NamdevTarachandani :: Mansh-Nagari
(48) 2014 :: Gope Kamal :: SijaAgyaanBuku
(49) 2015:: Maya Rahi :: Mahengi Murk

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